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Security Proofing the European & 
Transatlantic Tech Agendas
Discussion paper
The Munich Security Conference (MSC) is the world’s most prominent 
platform for the discussion of foreign and security policy. For nearly 60 years 
it has drawn attention to key challenges for the transatlantic alliance and 
global security. In this discussion paper, it raises the question of whether 
current technology policymaking across the transatlantic alliance takes key 
issues of national and international security sufficiently into account. Based 
on current examples it draws attention to the importance of assessing all 
policies and regulations for unintended effects on security and alliance 
cohesion and proposes the creation of a dedicated mechanism at the 
European level. The paper is a first attempt at outlining challenges and 
starting a debate. The MSC Technology Program welcomes feedback and 
contributions to the debate via
It has become common practice in many countries to carefully vet all new 
policies and regulations for their effects on climate change. From 
infrastructure funding to trade harmonization, European Union-level 
policies are increasingly becoming subject to “climate proofing.” This makes 
sense, given the grave nature of the threat. But a warming planet is not the 
only existential challenge we face. 
Our very way of life and the values on which our democracies are built are 
under attack. As autocratic challengers become bolder by the day, the 
guardians of our order are seemingly becoming more reluctant. This is why 
the EU needs a new dedicated Chief Security Officer, an official whose job 
would be to “security proof” everything the bloc does. Their one and only 
task would be to check whether key issues of national and international 
security have been taken into sufficient account in the formulation, negoti-
ation and, ultimately, implementation of new policies. 
Naturally, this is a tall order. Not only is the sheer number of policies to 
consider staggering, but the introduction of a new layer of bureaucracy is 

inherently difficult – and often deeply unpopular.  However, we must ensure 
that all new policies and regulations add to our security rather than subtract 
from it, that they do not weaken our alliance’s cohesion or strengthen the 
forces of illiberalism. We must also ensure that legitimate considerations 
about taxation or competition do not crowd out equally legitimate concerns 
about security or geopolitics. 
One obvious place to start is Europe’s digital agenda and, by extension, the 
transatlantic technology agenda. Here, both the risks and the stakes are 
particularly high, and the need for sensible policies to be able to withstand 
any assault by illiberal forces is particularly obvious. The omnipresence of 
cyber threats pervades the digital sphere down to the level of individual 
When it comes to digital policy, the conversation so far has centered on 
protecting European values and promoting Europe’s economic competi-
tiveness in the digital space. All these aspects are worthwhile — but layered 
on top of them should be a conversation about how to enhance security. 
Currently, potentially deleterious unintended consequences are still too 
often underappreciated – or worse, negative consequences are knowingly 
disregarded in pursuit of other aims. 
Security remains European citizens’ top priority for digital policy according 
to a recent survey by the Munich Security Conference, and they expect their 
governments to prioritize accordingly. The priority that Europeans give to 
the security of their digital life must also be a lens through which to view 
initiatives like the Digital Services and Digital Markets acts, the completion 
of the single digital market and the strengthening of Europe’s digital 
The goal of “security by design” should be applied not just to technology 
products but to digital and data policy, too. This means, at minimum, 
examining policies from every angle to ensure that they do not create 
unintended loopholes and problematic knock-on effects, or even increase 
the attack surface for those seeking to undermine the integrity and value 
base of liberal societies. 
Unfortunately, examples of current EU policies that come with significant 
and, as of now unresolved, security risks abound. They range from the 
deliberate (and counterproductive) weakening of secure ecosystems to 

insufficient safety requirements for Supervisory Control and Data 
Acquisition Systems on which most of Europe’s critical infrastructure is 
run. What is obviously needed is an overarching mechanism within the 
European Commission to examine all pending and future pieces of digital 
legislation. Such a mechanism could run through the office of the proposed 
European Chief Security Officer, whose explicit responsibility would be to 
coordinate across the branches of the European policymaking process to 
ensure that compliance with the goal of security is maintained as legislation 
is developed. 
Several countries, including China, proudly publicize how they are already 
integrating security in their wider tech and data policymaking. The EU must 
follow suit, as should its member countries, on both the national and sub-na-
tional level. An EU that carefully considers security will also be a more 
capable partner for the United States in pursuit of a robust, democratic 
transatlantic tech agenda that strengthens rather than undermines our 
position in the world and the values we stand for. And only by taking a 
stronger and more coherent view on security will the EU fully address the 
priorities and win the trust of European users. 
The transatlantic digital agenda and the challenge of (dis)trust 
Setting future standards for the governance of the internet, data, and digital 
technology has been a long-held ambition for the transatlantic partners. 
With new momentum toward a renewal of the transatlantic partnership, a 
window of opportunity has now opened to address this set of issues. The 
European Commission, beyond the new EU-US Trade and Technology 
Council, has envisioned a “dialogue on the responsibility of online 
platforms” and common solutions to antitrust enforcement and taxation in 
the digital sphere. The world is in a competition for the best approach to 
harnessing technology and the digital economy. If the world’s democracies 
can agree on common rules and regulations strong enough to withstand the 
growing assault by illiberal forces, this would go a long way toward 
promoting a global digital order reflecting liberal-democratic values.
However, an EU-US tech agenda faces some significant hurdles. On the one 
hand, despite perceptions on some issues converging, substantive differ-
ences on digital policy remain. On the other hand, the asymmetry between 
Europe and the US (as well as other major powers) in terms of digital capabil-
ities has given rise to an intense debate on European sovereignty in the 
digital space. The appearance of a push for European autarchy concerns 

allies, especially in the US. 
One underappreciated obstacle is the problematic lack of trust among 
European publics in the efficacy of government regulation in the digital 
sphere – both at the European level and particularly across the Atlantic. 
Europeans, so far, are not convinced that governments on either side of the 
Atlantic are able to provide sensible, robust, and most of all trusted 
guardrails to the digitalization permeating citizens’ lives. That is the clear 
conclusion from surveys commissioned by the MSC in six European 
countries. Commission Vice-President Margrethe Vestager has said that the 
EU’s strategy for a “digital decade” has to be “as much about building trust 
as it is about investing in digital innovation.” If Europe and the transatlantic 
partnership are to live up to their goals for integration and cooperation in 
the digital sphere, they will need to address the trust deficit. 
The nexus of trust and security 
The surest way to do so is by putting security front and center. For 
Europeans, security is the essential element of a European, and by extension 
transatlantic, agenda on digital technology. Their overriding concern by a 
wide margin, the MSC survey finds, is that they themselves are secure when 
using the internet (38 percent of respondents across Europe name security 
as their top priority for digital policy), and they expect their governments to 
prioritize accordingly. Nearly half of Europeans say their governments are 
not taking enough action to protect their data. That is particularly pertinent 
against the backdrop of an “age of perpetual cyberconflict” that is not just 
exemplified by high-profile state-sponsored hacking incidents like the cases 
of SolarWinds and Microsoft Exchange. Rather, the omnipresence of 
cyberthreats pervades the digital sphere down to the level of the individual 
Taking current debates on mobile device security as an example: the 
security of individuals’ mobile devices has become a prerequisite for 
enabling their everyday digital and physical lives. They have become widely 
trusted as repositories for biometric, financial, and other sensitive 
information. This is only possible because companies have designed mobile 
devices as carefully curated and therefore secure ecosystems – a prime 
example of how users’ trust is built on security. For this reason, governments 
are increasingly urging technology companies to ensure that their products 
are “secure by design”. In this context, regulation to the effect of breaking 
down the walls around such secure digital ecosystems by enabling so-called 

“sideloading” could have unintended consequences. It may open the door to 
malware and ransomware attacks at a time when malicious (state or 
non-state) actors, whether their goal is infiltrating governments for intelli-
gence or businesses for financial gain, increasingly target individuals and 
their mobile devices. This is why both private cybersecurity analysts and 
authorities like the US Department of Homeland Security and the EU’s 
cybersecurity agency ENISA warn against mobile malware from third-party 
Such issues are well understood at ENISA and relevant national authorities 
on both sides of the Atlantic. During the 2021 State of the Union speech, 
European Commission President Ursula von der Leyen announced the 
launch of a European Cyber Defence Policy, including legislation on 
common standards under a new European Cyber Resilience Act. This 
illustrates that at EU level there is an overall recognition that a balance is 
needed between internal market and competition regulation on one hand 
and security and privacy protections on the other. Therefore, the priority 
that Europeans give to the security of their experience online must also be a 
lens through which to view initiatives like the Digital Services and Digital 
Markets Acts, the completion of the single digital market, and the strength-
ening of Europe’s digital landscape. 
“Security proofing” European digital policymaking 
The debate on Europe’s sovereignty and specifically strengthening its digital 
capabilities is necessary. A more digitally capable European Union will also 
be a more reliable and more confident partner in pursuing a transatlantic 
digital agenda. Front and center in the conversation are goals of protecting 
European values and promoting European economic competitiveness (e.g., 
through a focus on antitrust and taxation policy) in the digital space. All 
these aspects are worthwhile – but layered on top of them should be a 
conversation about how to enhance security in the digital space. Instead, 
however, potentially deleterious unintended consequences for security are 
at risk of going under-appreciated – or, worse, known negative consequences 
may be disregarded in pursuit of other aims. 
The knock-on effects of European digital capacity-building for security at 
every level need to be accounted for: at the level of individuals’ privacy and 
security, at the level of public trust in the security of the digital space, and at 
the level of government resources that need to be expended to provide 
security and oversight. For instance, where data governance is taken out of 

the hands of foreign governments or oversight for the security of digital 
ecosystems is taken out of the hands of companies, Brussels and European 
capitals will have to step in with adequate mechanisms. In some cases, the 
need to replicate the level of security and oversight already provided by 
private companies may create a lot of pain and little gain for governments: 
the resources for mirroring functions at the European level that, for 
instance, the Federal Trade Commission fulfils in the United States for 
policing malicious software and other bad actors, as well as myriad other 
competencies, should not be underestimated.
New regulation always comes with a risk of overreach, unintended 
short-term consequences, and long-term negative knock-on effects, particu-
larly in an area as fast-moving and complex such as technology. Therefore, 
the goal of “security by design” should be applied not just to technology 
products, but digital policy, too. Today it is common practice to examine the 
effects on climate change of most if not all European level legislation. From 
infrastructure funding to foreign and security policy, policies are already or 
may soon become subject to such “climate proofing”. In the same vein, it 
should become the modus operandi for policymakers to “security proof” 
legislation on Europe’s digital agenda. This means, at minimum, examining 
policies from every angle to ensure that they do not create unintended 
loopholes and problematic knock-on effects or even increase the attack 
surface for those seeking to undermine the integrity and value base of liberal 
societies. At best, “security proofing” would make it a litmus test for all 
measures toward strengthening Europe’s digital capabilities whether they 
also contribute to security – at the various levels mentioned above and even 
in terms of Europe’s position in an ever more competitive and threatening 
global technological environment. 
Doing so would require a form of overarching mechanism within the 
European Commission to examine all pending and in-progress pieces of 
digital legislation. Such a mechanism could run through the office of a 
“European Chief Security Officer”, whose explicit responsibility would be to 
coordinate across the branches of the European policy-making process to 
ensure that compliance with the goal of “security by design” is maintained 
as legislation is developed. In an ideal world, this process would not only 
consider the hard aspects of technology and cybersecurity but also softer 
aspects of geopolitical consequence, such as the implications of certain 
measures, policies, or regulations for transatlantic cooperation and the 
overall cohesion of the West. 

Only by taking a stronger and more coherent view on security will the EU 
fully address the priorities and overcome the “digital distrust” of European 
users. And an EU that considers security every step of the way will also be a 
more capable partner for the US in pursuit of a robust, liberal-democratic 
transatlantic tech agenda that strengthens rather than undermines our 
position in the world and the values we stand for. 

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About the Munich Security Conference (MSC)
The Munich Security Conference is the world’s leading forum for debating 
international security policy. In addition to its annual flagship confer-
ence, the MSC regularly convenes high-profile events around the world. 
The MSC publishes the annual Munich Security Report and other formats 
on specific security issues.