Detta är en HTML-version av en bilaga till begäran om allmän handling 'Digital Services Act / Digital Markets Act'.



DSA discussions 
w/ Google
Categorisation of intermediary services
Proprietary & Confidential






Video conference best practices
All perspectives 
Ensure everyone 
Feel free to ask 
welcome
is heard
questions… and we’ll be 
sticking around afterwards!
Proprietary & Confidential










Proprietary + Confidential
Agenda
1. Intermediary service categories 
under the DSA
2. Cloud services and the DSA
3. Search engines and the DSA
4. Online marketplaces and the DSA
5. Q&A
Proprietary & Confidential



Proprietary + Confidential
Intermediary service 
categories under the DSA
Proprietary & Confidential





Proprietary + Confidential
Hosting services vs. 
Article 2(f) DSA: a hosting service “consists of the storage 
online platforms
of information provided by, and at the request of, a 
recipient of the service”.

Is an online platform under the DSA 
the same as a hosting service that 
disseminates to the public under the 
Article 2(h) DSA: online platform means “a provider of a 
Terrorist Content Online Regulation?
hosting service which, at the request of a recipient of the 
service, stores and disseminates to the public information, 

Could different service features or 
unless that activity is a minor and purely ancillary feature of 
functionalities fall under different 
another service and, for objective and technical reasons 
cannot be used without that other service, and the 
DSA categories?
integration of the feature into the other service is not a 
means to circumvent the applicability of this Regulation”.

What types of “features” does the caveat 
under Article 2(h) purport to capture?

How should the 45 million average 
Article 25 DSA: online platforms which provide their services 
monthly active recipients of the 
“to a number of average monthly active recipients of the 
service be calculated?
service in the Union equal to or higher than 45 million”.
Proprietary & Confidential








Proprietary + Confidential
Cloud computing 
technology
SaaS
PaaS
IaaS
Proprietary & Confidential





Cloud and content moderation constraints
Regulatory 
Contractual 
Technical 
requirements
obligations
limitations
Proprietary & Confidential


Cloud and the DSA
Cloud services do not 
A “hosting services” 
The DSA should ensure 
operate as traditional 
classification is more 
legal clarity
UGC-sharing platforms 
appropriate for cloud 
or social networks
services that host 

Knock-on effects 
on innovation
content

No discoverability

Possibility for 

Public dissemination 

No recommendations
significant sanctions
functionalities as minor 
and ancillary

Building trust in 
cloud technology
Proprietary & Confidential


Search engines and the DSA


Arguably Google’s search engine does not fall under Article 
The search service known as Yahoo! Italia Search … consisting 
14 [hosting] of [the E-Commerce] directive, 
as it does not store information (the natural results) 
at the request of the sites that provide it. Nevertheless, I 
believe that those sites can be regarded as the recipients of 
a (free) service provided by Google, namely of making the 
information about them accessible to internet users, which 
means that Google’s search engine may fall under the 
liability exemption provided in respect of ‘caching’ in Article 
13 of that directive.
Adv. Gen. Maduro, European Court of Justice Cases 
“ of seeking and listing the websites relevant to the research 
criteria indicated by the search engine user ... In order to 
carry out this activity the search engine makes a copy of 
each website temporarily stored in a cache, which enables it 
to provide the search results ... Such automatic, intermediate 
and temporary saving of information - carried out for the sole “
purpose of making the subsequent forwarding of the request 
to the recipient therefore characterises the activity in 
question [as caching].
Italian Supreme Court of Cassation, Reti Televisive Italine 
C‑236/08, C‑237/08 and C‑238/08
S.p.a. v. Yahoo! Italia S.r.l., No. 7709-19 (2019)
Proprietary & Confidential



Proprietary + Confidential
DSA definition of caching
Article 2(f) DSA: a ‘caching’ service ... consists of the transmission 
in a communication network of information provided by a recipient 
of the service, involving the automatic, intermediate and 
temporary storage of that information, for the sole purpose 
of making more efficient the information's onward transmission 
to other recipients upon their request;
Proprietary & Confidential




Proprietary + Confidential
Search engines and the DSA
Operators of websites on the open Web don’t 
generally “request” search engines to store their 
content like a user uploading to a hosting service does.

The request first comes from the search 
Article 2(f) DSA: a hosting service “consists of the 
engine’s crawler
storage of information provided by, and at the request 
of, a recipient of the service”.

The site operator can then accept or decline
Google does not generally enter into a TOS with 
webmasters as such
Article 15(1) DSA: hosting service “shall inform the 
Google has no relationship at all with many sites, 
recipient, at the latest at the time of the removal or 
disabling of access, of the decision…”
other than accessing their content over the Web 
(just as a user with a web browser does).
cf. P2B Art. 5(4): “Where a provider of an online search 
engine has ... delisted a particular website following a third 

Spam sites have less incentive to sign up 
party notification, the provider shall offer the possibility ... 
for notices (4.3 million actions in 2019)
to inspect the contents of the notification.”
Proprietary & Confidential


Definition of online marketplaces
DSA “calls for measures which have consumer protection at their core, by including a detailed 
section on online marketplaces” (Explanatory Memorandum), but is not aligned with the existing 
consumer law marketplace definitions.
“‘Online marketplace’ means a  Before a consumer is bound by  Where an online platform allows 


service provider, as defined in [the 
a distance contract, or any 
consumers to conclude distance 
e-Commerce Directive], which 
corresponding offer, on an 
contracts with traders…
allows consumers and traders to 
online marketplace, …



conclude online sales and service 
… on the platform … (would clarify 
contracts on the online 
Art. 4(5) Omnibus Directive 
and bring consistency)
marketplace’s website.
(Additional specific information 
requirements for contracts 
Art. 22 DSA 
Art. 4 ODR Regulation
concluded on online marketplaces)
(Traceability of traders)
Proprietary & Confidential



Thank you 
and Q&As
Proprietary & Confidential



Proprietary + Confidential
Next topics (May / June)
User redress and user transparency
Transparency towards regulators and data access by authorities
Illegal vs. harmful content
Proprietary & Confidential