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Council of the 
 
 

 European Union 
   
 
Brussels, 6 October 2021 
(OR. en) 
    12555/21 
 
Interinstitutional File: 
 
 
2020/0361(COD) 
LIMITE 
 
COMPET 689 

MI 721 
JAI 1068 
TELECOM 362 
 
 
CT 127 
PI 88 
AUDIO 95 
CONSOM 213 
CODEC 1294 
JUSTCIV 153 
 
NOTE 
From: 
Presidency 
To: 
Delegations 
No. prev. doc.: 
11459/3/21 
Subject: 
Proposal for a REGULATION OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND 
OF THE COUNCIL on a Single Market For Digital Services (Digital 
Services Act) and amending Directive 2000/31/EC 
- Presidency compromise text on Chapters I and II, including their 
respective Recitals (1) - (33a). 
 
 
In view of the upcoming Working Parties for Competitiveness and Growth on 12 and 14 October 
2021, delegations will find in Annex to this note a Presidency compromise text on Chapters I and II, 
including their respective Recitals (1) - (33a). 
Changes compared to the previous redraft of the proposal (doc. 11459/3/21 REV 3) are marked in 
bold, underlined and highlight for the new text and in strikethrough for the deletions. 
 
 
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ANNEX 
2020/0361 (COD) 
Proposal for a 
REGULATION OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL on a Single 
Market For Digital Services (Digital Services Act) and amending Directive 2000/31/EC 
(Text with EEA relevance) 
THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND THE COUNCIL OF THE EUROPEAN UNION, 
Having regard to the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, and in particular Article 114 
thereof, 
Having regard to the proposal from the European Commission, 
After transmission of the draft legislative act to the national parliaments, 
Having regard to the opinion of the European Economic and Social Committee1
[Having regard to the opinion of the Committee of the Regions2, 
Having regard to the opinion of the European Data Protection Supervisor3
Acting in accordance with the ordinary legislative procedure, 
                                                 
1 
OJ C , , p. . 
2 
OJ C , , p. . 
3 
OJ C, p. 
 
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Whereas: 
(1) 
Information society services and especially intermediary services have become an important 
part of the Union’s economy and daily life of Union citizens. Twenty years after the 
adoption of the existing legal framework applicable to such services laid down in Directive 
2000/31/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council4, new and innovative business 
models and services, such as online social networks and marketplaces, have allowed 
business users and consumers to impart and access information and engage in transactions in 
novel ways. A majority of Union citizens now uses those services on a daily basis. However, 
the digital transformation and increased use of those services has also resulted in new risks 
and challenges, both for individual users recipients of the service and for society as a 
whole. 
(2) 
Member States are increasingly introducing, or are considering introducing, national laws on 
the matters covered by this Regulation, imposing, in particular, diligence requirements for 
providers of intermediary services. Those diverging national laws negatively affect the 
internal market, which, pursuant to Article 26 of the Treaty, comprises an area without 
internal frontiers in which the free movement of goods and services and freedom of 
establishment are ensured, taking into account the inherently cross-border nature of the 
internet, which is generally used to provide those services. The conditions for the provision 
of intermediary services across the internal market should be harmonised, so as to provide 
businesses with access to new markets and opportunities to exploit the benefits of the 
internal market, while allowing consumers and other recipients of the services to have 
increased choice. Both business users, consumers and other users can be “recipients of 
the service” for the purpose of this Regulation. 
                                                 
4 
Directive 2000/31/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 8 June 2000 on 
certain legal aspects of information society services, in particular electronic commerce, in 
the Internal Market ('Directive on electronic commerce') (OJ L 178, 17.7.2000, p. 1). 
 
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(3) 
Responsible and diligent behaviour by providers of intermediary services is essential for a 
safe, predictable and trusted online environment and for allowing Union citizens and other 
persons to exercise their fundamental rights guaranteed in the Charter of Fundamental 
Rights of the European Union (‘Charter’), in particular the freedom of expression and 
information and the freedom to conduct a business, and the right to non-discrimination. 
(4) 
Therefore, in order to safeguard and improve the functioning of the internal market, a 
targeted set of uniform, effective and proportionate mandatory rules should be established at 
Union level. This Regulation provides the conditions for innovative digital services to 
emerge and to scale up in the internal market. The approximation of national regulatory 
measures at Union level concerning the requirements for providers of intermediary services 
is necessary in order to avoid and put an end to fragmentation of the internal market and to 
ensure legal certainty, thus reducing uncertainty for developers and fostering 
interoperability. By using requirements that are technology neutral, innovation should not be 
hampered but instead be stimulated. 
(5) 
This Regulation should apply to providers of certain information society services as defined 
in Directive (EU) 2015/1535 of the European Parliament and of the Council5, that is, any 
service normally provided for remuneration, at a distance, by electronic means and at the 
individual request of a recipient. Specifically, this Regulation should apply to providers of 
intermediary services, and in particular intermediary services consisting of services known 
as ‘mere conduit’, ‘caching’, ‘online search engine’ and ‘hosting’ services, given that the 
exponential growth of the use made of those services, mainly for legitimate and socially 
beneficial purposes of all kinds, has also increased their role in the intermediation and 
spread of unlawful or otherwise harmful information and activities. 
                                                 
5 
Directive (EU) 2015/1535 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 9 September 
2015 laying down a procedure for the provision of information in the field of technical 
regulations and of rules on Information Society services (OJ L 241, 17.9.2015, p. 1). 
 
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(6) 
In practice, certain providers of intermediary services intermediate in relation to services 
that may or may not be provided by electronic means, such as remote information 
technology services, transport, accommodation or delivery services. This Regulation should 
apply only to intermediary services and not affect requirements set out in Union or national 
law relating to products or services intermediated through intermediary services. This 
Regulation should not apply in situations where the intermediation is indispensable to 
the provision of the intermediated service and the service provider exercises decisive 
influence over the conditions under which the intermediated service is provided, as 
specified in the case law of the Court of Justice of the European Union., including in 
situations where the intermediary service constitutes an integral part of another service 
which is not an intermediary service as specified in the case law of the Court of Justice of 
the European Union. 
(7) 
In order to ensure the effectiveness of the rules laid down in this Regulation and a level 
playing field within the internal market, those rules should apply to providers of 
intermediary services irrespective of their place of establishment or residencelocation, in so 
far as they provideoffer services in the Union, as evidenced by a substantial connection to 
the Union. 
 
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(8) 
Such a substantial connection to the Union should be considered to exist where the service 
provider has an establishment in the Union or, in its absence, on the basis of the existence of 
a significant number of recipients of the serviceusers in one or more Member States in 
relation to their population, or the targeting of activities towards one or more Member 
States. The targeting of activities towards one or more Member States can be determined on 
the basis of all relevant circumstances, including factors such as the use of a language or a 
currency generally used in that Member State, or the possibility of ordering products or 
services, or using the use of relevant national top level domain. The targeting of activities 
towards a Member State could also be derived from the availability of an application in the 
relevant national application store, from the provision of local advertising or advertising in 
the language used in that Member State, or from the handling of customer relations such as 
by providing customer service in the language generally used in that Member State. A 
substantial connection should also be assumed where a service provider directs its activities 
to one or more Member State as set out in Article 17(1)(c) of Regulation (EU) 1215/2012 of 
the European Parliament and of the Council6. On the other hand, mere technical accessibility 
of a website from the Union cannot, on that ground alone, be considered as establishing a 
substantial connection to the Union. 
                                                 
6 
Regulation (EU) No 1215/2012 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 12 
December 2012 on jurisdiction and the recognition and enforcement of judgments in civil 
and commercial matters (OJ L351, 20.12.2012, p.1). 
 
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(8a)  The place at which a service provider is established in the Union should be determined 
in compliance conformity with Union law as interpreted by the Court of Justice of the 
European Union according to which the concept of establishment involves the actual 
pursuit of an economic activity through a fixed establishment for an indefinite period. 
This requirement is also fulfilled where a company is constituted for a given period. 
The place of establishment of a company providing offering services via an Internet 
website is not the place at which the technology supporting its website is located or the 
place at which its website is accessible but the place where it pursues its economic 
activity. In cases where a provider has several places of establishment it is important to 
determine from which place of establishment the service concerned is provided offered. 
In cases where it is difficult to determine from which of several places of establishment 
a given service is provided offered, this is the place where the provider has the centre 
of his activities relating to this particular service. 
 
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(9) 
This Regulation fully harmonises the rules applicable to intermediary services in the 
internal market with the objective to ensure a safe, predictable and trusted online 
environment, where fundamental rights enshrined in the Charter are effectively 
protected. Accordingly, Member States should not adopt or maintain additional 
national requirements on those matters falling within the scope of this Regulation, 
unless explicitly provided for in this Regulation, since this would affect the direct and 
uniform application of the fully harmonised rules applicable to the providers of 
intermediary services in accordance with the objectives of this Regulation. This does 
not preclude the possibility to apply other national legislation applicable to providers 
of intermediary services in accordance with Union law, including Directive 
2000/31/EC, in particular its Article 3, which pursue other legitimate public interest 
objectives. This Regulation should complement, yet not affect the application of rules 
resulting from other acts of Union law regulating certain aspects of the provision of 
intermediary services, in particular Directive 2000/31/EC, with the exception of those 
changes introduced by this Regulation, Directive 2010/13/EU of the European Parliament 
and of the Council as amended,7 and Regulation (EU) …/.. of the European Parliament and 
of the Council8 – proposed Terrorist Content Online Regulation. Therefore, this Regulation 
leaves those other acts, which are to be considered lex specialis in relation to the generally 
applicable framework set out in this Regulation, unaffected. However, the rules of this 
Regulation apply in respect of issues that are not or not fully addressed by those other acts as 
well as issues on which those other acts leave Member States the possibility of adopting 
certain measures at national level. 
                                                 
7 
Directive 2010/13/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 10 March 2010 on 
the coordination of certain provisions laid down by law, regulation or administrative action 
in Member States concerning the provision of audiovisual media services (Audiovisual 
Media Services Directive) (Text with EEA relevance), OJ L 95, 15.4.2010, p. 1 . 
8 
Regulation (EU) …/.. of the European Parliament and of the Council – proposed Terrorist 
Content Online Regulation. 
 
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(10)  This Regulation should be without prejudice to other acts of Union law regulating the 
provision of information society services in general, other aspects of the provision of 
intermediary services in the internal market or specifying and complementing the 
harmonised rules set out in this Regulation, which are to be considered as lex specialis 
in relation to the generally applicable framework set out in this Regulation such as 
Directive 2010/13/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council as amended, 
including the specific objectives set out in that Directive as regards video-sharing 
platforms,9 Regulation (EU) 2021…/784.. of the European Parliament and of the 
Council10 on addressing the dissemination of the   proposed Terrorist Content Online 
Regulation, Regulation (EU) 2019/1148 of the European Parliament and of the 
Council11, Regulation (EU) …./…. [on European Production and Preservation Orders 
for electronic evidence in criminal matters]; Directive (EU) …./…. [laying down 
harmonised rules on the appointment of legal representatives for the purpose of 
gathering evidence in criminal proceedings] and Regulation (EU) 2019/1150 of the 
European Parliament and of the Council12, Directive 2002/58/EC of the European 
Parliament and of the Council13 and Regulation (EU) 2021/1232 of the European 
Parliament and of the Council[…/…] on temporary derogation from certain provisions 
of Directive 2002/58/EC14. Similarly, for reasons of clarity, it should also be specified 
                                                 
9 
Directive 2010/13/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 10 March 2010 
on the coordination of certain provisions laid down by law, regulation or 
administrative action in Member States concerning the provision of audiovisual media 
services (Audiovisual Media Services Directive) ((Text with EEA relevance), OJ L 95, 
15.4.2010, p. 1) . 

10 
Regulation (EU) 2021…/784.. of the European Parliament and of the Council on 
addressing the dissemination of the Terrorist Content Online  proposed Terrorist 
Content Online Regulation (OJ L 172, 17.5.2021, p. 79).
 
11 
Regulation (EU) 2019/1148 of the European Parliament and of the Council on the 
marketing and use of explosives precursors, amending Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 
and repealing Regulation (EU) No 98/2013 (OJ L 186, 11.7.2019, p. 1). 

12 
Regulation (EU) 2019/1150 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 20 June 
2019 on promoting fairness and transparency for business users of online 
intermediation services (OJ L 186, 11.7.2019, p. 57). 

13 
Directive 2002/58/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 12 July 2002 
concerning the processing of personal data and the protection of privacy in the 
electronic communications sector (Directive on privacy and electronic 
communications) (, OJ L 201, 31.7.2002, p. 37). 

14 
Regulation (EU) […/…] 2021/1232 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 
14 July 2021 on temporary derogation from certain provisions of Directive 2002/58/EC 

 
 
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that this Regulation is without prejudice to Union law on consumer protection, in 
particular Directive 2005/29/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council15
Directive 2011/83/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council16 and Directive 
93/13/EEC of the European Parliament and of the Council17, as amended by Directive 
(EU) 2019/2161 of the European Parliament and of the Council18, on the protection of 
personal data, in particular Regulation (EU) 2016/679 of the European Parliament and 
of the Council, and Regulation (EU) 1215/2012 of the European Parliament and of the 
Council of 12 December 2012 on jurisdiction and the recognition and enforcement of 
judgments in civil and commercial matters.19 This Regulation is, therefore, without 
prejudice to Union rules on private international law, in particular rules regarding 
jurisdiction and the recognition and enforcement of judgments in civil and commercial 
matters and rules on the law applicable to contractual and non-contractual obligations. 
The protection of individuals with regard to the processing of personal data is solely 
governed by the rules of Union law on that subject, in particular Regulation (EU) 
2016/679 and Directive 2002/58/EC. This Regulation is also without prejudice to the 
                                                                                                                                                                 
as regards the use of technologies by providers of number-independent interpersonal 
communications services for the processing of personal and other data for the purpose 
of combating online child sexual abuse (OJ L 274, 30.7.2021, p. 41) […/…] on 
temporary derogation from certain provisions of Directive 2002/58/EC.. 

15 
Directive 2005/29/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 11 May 2005 
concerning unfair business-to-consumer commercial practices in the internal market 
and amending Council Directive 84/450/EEC, Directives 97/7/EC, 98/27/EC and 
2002/65/EC of
 the European Parliament and of the Council and Regulation (EC) No 
2006/2004 of the European Parliament and of the Council (‘Unfair Commercial 
Practices Directive’) (OJ L 149, 11.6.2005, p. 22). 

16 
Directive 2011/83/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 25 October 
2011 on consumer rights, amending Council Directive 93/13/EEC and Directive 
1999/44/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council and repealing Council 
Directive 85/577/EEC and Directive 97/7/EC of the European Parliament and of the 
Council (OJ L 304, 22.11.2011, p. 64). 

17 
Council Directive 93/13/EEC of 5 April 1993 on unfair terms in consumer contracts 
(OJ L 95, 21.4.1993, p. 29) as amended by Directive (EU) 2019/2161 of the European 
Parliament and of the Council.
 
18 
Directive (EU) 2019/2161 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 27 
November 2019 amending Council Directive 93/13/EEC and Directives 98/6/EC, 
2005/29/EC and 2011/83/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council as regards 
the better enforcement and modernisation of Union consumer protection rules.
 
19 
Regulation (EU) 2016/679 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 27 April 
2016 on the protection of natural persons with regard to the processing of personal 
data and on the free movement of such data, and repealing Directive 95/46/EC 
(General Data Protection Regulation) (OJ L 119, 4.5.2016, p. 1).
 
 
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rules of Union law on working conditions and the rules of Union law in the field of 
judicial cooperation in civil and criminal matters. However, to the extent that these 
rules pursue the same objectives laid down in this Regulation, the rules of this 
Regulation apply in respect of issues that are not or not fully addressed by those other 
acts as well as issues on which those other acts leave Member States the possibility of 
adopting certain measures at national level. For reasons of clarity, it should also be 
specified that this Regulation is without prejudice to Regulation (EU) 2019/1148 of the 
European Parliament and of the Council20 and Regulation (EU) 2019/1150 of the European 
Parliament and of the Council,21 , Directive 2002/58/EC of the European Parliament and of 
the Council22 and Regulation […/…] on temporary derogation from certain provisions of 
Directive 2002/58/EC23 as well as Union law on consumer protection, in particular Directive 
2005/29/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council24, Directive 2011/83/EU of the 
European Parliament and of the Council25 and Directive 93/13/EEC of the European 
Parliament and of the Council26, as amended by Directive (EU) 2019/2161 of the European 
Parliament and of the Council27, and on the protection of personal data, in particular 
                                                 
20 
Regulation (EU) 2019/1148 of the European Parliament and of the Council on the marketing 
and use of explosives precursors, amending Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 and repealing 
Regulation (EU) No 98/2013 (OJ L 186, 11.7.2019, p. 1). 
21 
Regulation (EU) 2019/1150 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 20 June 2019 
on promoting fairness and transparency for business users of online intermediation services 
(OJ L 186, 11.7.2019, p. 57). 
22 
Directive 2002/58/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 12 July 2002 
concerning the processing of personal data and the protection of privacy in the electronic 
communications sector (Directive on privacy and electronic communications), OJ L 201, 
31.7.2002, p. 37. 
23 
Regulation […/…] on temporary derogation from certain provisions of Directive 
2002/58/EC. 
24 
Directive 2005/29/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 11 May 2005 
concerning unfair business to consumer commercial practices in the internal market and 
amending Council Directive 84/450/EEC, Directives 97/7/EC, 98/27/EC and 2002/65/EC of 
the European Parliament and of the Council and Regulation (EC) No 2006/2004 of the 
European Parliament and of the Council (‘Unfair Commercial Practices Directive’). 
25 
Directive 2011/83/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 25 October 2011 on 
consumer rights, amending Council Directive 93/13/EEC and Directive 1999/44/EC of the 
European Parliament and of the Council and repealing Council Directive 85/577/EEC and 
Directive 97/7/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council. 
26 
Council Directive 93/13/EEC of 5 April 1993 on unfair terms in consumer contracts. 
27 
Directive (EU) 2019/2161 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 27 November 
2019 amending Council Directive 93/13/EEC and Directives 98/6/EC, 2005/29/EC and 
 
 
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Regulation (EU) 2016/679 of the European Parliament and of the Council.28 The protection 
of individuals with regard to the processing of personal data is solely governed by the rules 
of Union law on that subject, in particular Regulation (EU) 2016/679 and Directive 
2002/58/EC. This Regulation is also without prejudice to the rules of Union law on working 
conditions. 
(11)  It should be clarified that this Regulation is without prejudice to the rules of Union law on 
copyright and related rights, including Directive 2001/29/EC, Directive 2004/48/EC and 
Directive 2019/790/EU; in particular this Regulation is without prejudice to the specific 
rules and procedures governing the liability of providers of intermediary services set in 
those Directives.which establish specific rules and procedures that should remain 
unaffected, and their enforcement
(12)  In order to achieve the objective of ensuring a safe, predictable and trusted online 
environment, for the purpose of this Regulation the concept of “illegal content” should 
underpin the general idea that what is illegal offline should also be illegal online. The 
concept should be defined broadly to cover be defined broadly and also covers 
information relating to illegal content, products, services and activities. In particular, that 
concept should be understood to refer to information, irrespective of its form, that under the 
applicable law is either itself illegal, such as illegal hate speech or terrorist content and 
unlawful discriminatory content, or that relates to activities that are illegal, such as the 
sharing of images depicting child sexual abuse, unlawful non-consensual sharing of private 
images, online stalking, the sale of non-compliant or counterfeit products, the sale of 
products or the provision of services in infringement of consumer protection law, the 
non-authorised use of copyright protected material, or the illegal offer of accommodation 
services or activities involving infringements of consumer protection law. In this regard, it is 
immaterial whether the illegality of the information or activity results from Union law or 
from national law that is consistent in compliance with Union law and what the precise 
nature or subject matter is of the law in question. 
                                                                                                                                                                 
2011/83/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council as regards the better 
enforcement and modernisation of Union consumer protection rules. 
28 
Regulation (EU) 2016/679 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 27 April 2016 
on the protection of natural persons with regard to the processing of personal data and on the 
free movement of such data, and repealing Directive 95/46/EC (General Data Protection 
Regulation) (OJ L 119, 4.5.2016, p. 1). 
 
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(13)  Considering the particular characteristics of the services concerned and the corresponding 
need to make the providers thereof subject to certain specific obligations, it is necessary to 
distinguish, within the broader category of providers of hosting services as defined in this 
Regulation, the subcategory of online platforms. Online platforms, such as social networks 
or online marketplaces, should be defined as providers of hosting services that not only store 
information provided by the recipients of the service at their request, but that also 
disseminate that information to the public, again at their request. However, in order to avoid 
imposing overly broad obligations, providers of hosting services should not be considered as 
online platforms where the dissemination to the public is merely a minor and purely 
ancillary feature that is intrinsically linked to of another service and that feature cannot, 
for objective technical reasons, be used without that other, principal service, and the 
integration of that feature is not a means to circumvent the applicability of the rules of this 
Regulation applicable to online platforms. For example, the hosting of a comments section 
in an online newspaper could constitute such a feature, where it is clear that it is ancillary to 
the main service represented by the publication of news under the editorial responsibility of 
the publisher. In contrast, the hosting of comments in a social network should be 
considered an online platform service, where it is clear that it is a major feature of the 
service offered, even if it is ancillary to the publishing of users’the posts of recipients of 
the service. 
 
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(14)  The concept of ‘dissemination to the public’, as used in this Regulation, should entail the 
making available of information to a potentially unlimited number of persons, that is, 
making the information easily accessible to users recipients of the service in general 
without further action by the recipient of the service providing the information being 
required, irrespective of whether those persons actually access the information in question. 
Accordingly, where access to information requires registration or admittance to a 
group of recipients of the serviceusers, that information should be considered to be 
disseminated to the public only where recipients of the service users seeking to access 
the information are automatically registered or admitted without a human decision or 
selection of whom to grant access. The mere possibility to create groups of users of a given 
service, including a messagings service, should not, in itself, be understood to mean that the 
information disseminated in that manner is not disseminated to the public. However, the 
concept should exclude dissemination of information within closed groups consisting of a 
finite number of pre determined persons. Interpersonal communication services, as defined 
in Directive (EU) 2018/1972 of the European Parliament and of the Council,29 such as 
emails or private messaging services, fall outside the scope of the definition on online 
platformsis Regulation as they are used for interpersonal communication between a 
finite number of persons which is determined by the sender of the communication. 
However, the obligations set out in this Regulation for providers of online platforms 
may apply to services that allow the making available of information to potentially 
unlimited number of recipients, not determined by the sender of the communication, 
such as through public groups or open channels. Information should be considered 
disseminated to the public within the meaning of this Regulation only where that occurs 
upon the direct request by the recipient of the service that provided the information. 
Consequently, providers of services, such as cloud infrastructure, which are provided 
at the request of parties other than the content providers and only indirectly benefit 
the latter, should not be covered by the definition of online platforms. 
                                                 
29 
Directive (EU) 2018/1972 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 11 December 
2018 establishing the European Electronic Communications Code (Recast), OJ L 321, 
17.12.2018, p. 36)
 
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(15)  Where some of the services provided offered by a provider are covered by this Regulation 
whilst others are not, or where the services provided offered by a provider are covered by 
different sections of this Regulation, the relevant provisions of this Regulation should apply 
only in respect of those services that fall within their scope. 
(16)  The legal certainty provided by the horizontal framework of conditional exemptions from 
liability for providers of intermediary services, laid down in Directive 2000/31/EC, has 
allowed many novel services to emerge and scale-up across the internal market. That 
framework should therefore be preserved. However, in view of the divergences when 
transposing and applying the relevant rules at national level, and for reasons of clarity and 
coherence, that framework should be incorporated in this Regulation. It is also necessary to 
clarify certain elements of that framework, having regard to case law of the Court of Justice 
of the European Union. 
(17)  The relevant rules of Chapter II should only establish when the provider of intermediary 
services concerned cannot be held liable in relation to illegal content provided by the 
recipients of the service. Those rules should not be understood to provide a positive basis for 
establishing when a provider can be held liable, which is for the applicable rules of Union or 
national law to determine. Furthermore, the exemptions from liability established in this 
Regulation should apply in respect of any type of liability as regards any type of illegal 
content, irrespective of the precise subject matter or nature of those laws. 
(18)  The exemptions from liability established in this Regulation should not apply where, instead 
of confining itself to providing the services neutrally, by a merely technical and automatic 
processing of the information provided by the recipient of the service, the provider of 
intermediary services plays an active role of such a kind as to give it knowledge of, or 
control over, that information. Those exemptions should accordingly not be available in 
respect of liability relating to information provided not by the recipient of the service but by 
the provider of intermediary service itself, including where the information has been 
developed under the editorial responsibility of that provider. 
 
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(19)  In view of the different nature of the activities of ‘mere conduit’, ‘caching’ and ‘hosting’ and 
the different position and abilities of the providers of the services in question, it is necessary 
to distinguish the rules applicable to those activities, in so far as under this Regulation they 
are subject to different requirements and conditions and their scope differs, as interpreted by 
the Court of Justice of the European Union. 
(20)  A provider of intermediary services that deliberately collaborates with a recipient of the 
services in order to undertake illegal activities does not provide its service neutrally and 
should therefore not be able to benefit from the exemptions from liability provided for in 
this Regulation. This is the case, in particularfor instance, where it provides offers its 
service with the main purpose of facilitating illegal activities, for example by making 
explicit its purpose to facilitate criminal activities and that its services are suited for 
that purpose. The fact alone that a service offers encrypted transmissions or any other 
system that makes the identification of the user impossible should not in itself qualify 
as deliberate collaboration. 
(21)  A provider should be able to benefit from the exemptions from liability for ‘mere conduit’ 
and for ‘caching’ services when it is in no way involved with the information transmitted. 
This requires, among other things, that the provider does not modify the information that it 
transmits. However, this requirement should not be understood to cover manipulations of a 
technical nature which take place in the course of the transmission, as such long as these 
manipulations do not alter the integrity of the information transmitted. 
 
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(22)  In order to benefit from the exemption from liability for hosting services, the provider 
should, upon obtaining actual knowledge or awareness of illegal content, act expeditiously 
to remove or to disable access to that content. The removal or disabling of access should be 
undertaken in the observance of the principle ofright to freedom of expression. The 
provider can obtain such actual knowledge or awareness, inter alia, through, in particular, 
its own-initiative investigations, or notices submitted to it by individuals or entities in 
accordance with this Regulation in so far as those notices are sufficiently precise and 
adequately substantiated to allow a diligent economic operator to reasonably identify, assess 
and where appropriate act against the allegedly illegal content. However, such actual 
knowledge cannot be considered to be obtained solely on the ground that that provider 
operator is aware, in a general sense, of the fact that its service is also used to share 
illegal content and that it therefore has an abstract knowledge that such content is 
being made available illegally through its service. Furthermore, the fact that an 
operator provider automatically indexes content uploaded to its service, that it has a 
search function and that it recommends content on the basis of the profiles or 
preferences of the recipients of the service is not a sufficient ground for the conclusion 
that that operator provider has ‘specific’ knowledge of illegal activities carried out on 
that platform or of illegal content information stored on it. 
(22a)  The exemption of liability should not apply where the recipient of the service is acting 
under the authority or the control of the provider of a hosting service. For exampleIn 
particular, where the provider of the online marketplace determines the price of the 
goods or services offered by the trader, does not allow traders to determine the basic 
elements of the trader consumer contract, such as the terms and conditions governing 
such relationship or the price, it couldshould be considered that the trader acts under 
the authority or control of that online marketplace. 
 
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(23)  In order to ensure the effective protection of consumers when engaging in intermediated 
commercial transactions online, certain providers of hosting services, namely, online 
platforms that allow consumers to conclude distance contracts with tradersmarketplaces
should not be able to benefit from the exemption from liability for hosting service providers 
established in this Regulation, in so far as those online platformsmarketplaces present the 
relevant information relating to the transactions at issue in such a way that it leads 
consumers to believe that the information was provided by those online platforms 
marketplaces themselves or by recipients of the service acting under their authority or 
control, and that those online platforms marketplaces thus have knowledge of or control 
over the information, even if that may in reality not be the case. This is could be, for 
example, the case where the online marketplace fails to display clearly the identity of 
the trader pursuant to following this Regulation, . where In particular, it is relevant 
whether the online marketplace withholds such identity or contact details until after 
the conclusion of the trader-consumer contract, or is marketing the product or service 
in its own name rather than using the name of the trader who will supply it. In that 
regard, is should be determined objectively, on the basis of all relevant circumstances, 
whether the presentation could lead to such a belief on the side of an average consumer 
who is reasonably well informed and reasonably observant and circumspectand 
reasonably well informed consumer.  
 
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(24)  The exemptions from liability established in this Regulation should not affect the possibility 
of injunctions of different kinds against providers of intermediary services, even where they 
meet the conditions set out as part of those exemptions. Such injunctions could, in particular, 
consist of orders by courts or administrative authorities requiring the termination or 
prevention of any infringement, including the removal of illegal content specified in such 
orders, issued in compliance with Union law, or the disabling of access to it. 
(25)  In order to create legal certainty and not to discourageto encourage activities aimed at 
detecting, identifying and acting against illegal content that providers of all categories of 
intermediary services may undertake on a voluntary basis, it should be clarified that the 
mere fact that providers undertake such activities does not lead to the unavailability of the 
exemptions from liability set out in this Regulation, provided those activities are carried out 
in good faith and in a diligent manner. In addition, it is appropriate to clarify that the mere 
fact that those providers take measures, in good faith, to comply with the requirements of 
Union law, including those set out in this Regulation as regards the implementation of their 
terms and conditions, should not lead to the unavailability of those exemptions from 
liability. Therefore, any such activities and measures that a given provider may have taken 
should not be taken into account when determining whether the provider can rely on an 
exemption from liability, in particular as regards whether the provider provides offers its 
service neutrally and can therefore fall within the scope of the relevant provision, without 
this rule however implying that the provider can necessarily rely thereon. Voluntary actions 
should not be used to circumvent the obligations of this Regulation of all providers of 
intermediary services under this Regulation. 
 
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(26)  Whilst the rules in Chapter II of this Regulation concentrate on the exemption from liability 
of providers of intermediary services, it is important to recall that, despite the generally 
important role played by those providers, the problem of illegal content and activities online 
should not be dealt with by solely focusing on their liability and responsibilities. Where 
possible, third parties affected by illegal content transmitted or stored online should attempt 
to resolve conflicts relating to such content without involving the providers of intermediary 
services in question. Recipients of the service should be held liable, where the applicable 
rules of Union and national law determining such liability so provide, for the illegal content 
that they provide and may disseminate through intermediary services. Where appropriate, 
other actors, such as group moderators in closed online environments, in particular in the 
case of large groups, should also help to avoid the spread of illegal content online, in 
accordance with the applicable law. Furthermore, where it is necessary to involve 
information society services providers, including providers of intermediary services, any 
requests or orders for such involvement should, as a general rule, be directed to the specific 
provider actor that has the technical and operational ability to act against specific items of 
illegal content, so as to prevent and minimise any possible negative effects for the 
availability and accessibility of information that is not illegal content. 
 
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(27)  Since 2000, new technologies have emerged that improve the availability, efficiency, speed, 
reliability, capacity and security of systems for the transmission and storage of data online, 
leading to an increasingly complex online ecosystem. In this regard, it should be recalled 
that providers of services establishing and facilitating the underlying logical architecture and 
proper functioning of the internet, including technical auxiliary functions, can also benefit 
from the exemptions from liability set out in this Regulation, to the extent that their services 
qualify as ‘mere conduits’, ‘caching’ or hosting services. Such services include, as the case 
may be, wireless local area networks, domain name system (DNS) services, top–level 
domain name registries, registrars, certificate authorities that issue digital certificates, or 
content delivery networks, that enable or improve the functions of other providers of 
intermediary services. Likewise, services used for communications purposes, and the 
technical means of their delivery, have also evolved considerably, giving rise to online 
services such as Voice over IP, messaging services and web-based e-mail services, where 
the communication is delivered via an internet access service. Those services, too, can 
benefit from the exemptions from liability, to the extent that they qualify as ‘mere conduit’, 
‘caching’ or hosting service. 
 
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(27a)  Intermediary services span a wide range of economic activities which take place online 
and that develop continually to provide for transmission of information that is swift, 
safe and secure, and to ensure convenience of all participants of the online ecosystem. 
For example, ‘Mere conduit’ intermediary services include generic categories of 
services such as internet exchange points, wireless access points, virtual private 
networks, domain name system (DNS) services and resolvers, top–level domain name 
registries, registrars, certificate authorities that issue digital certificates, voice over IP 
and other interpersonal communication services, while generic examples of ‘caching’ 
intermediary services include the sole provision of content delivery networks, reverse 
proxies or content adaptation proxies. Such services are crucial to ensure smooth and 
efficient transition of information delivered on the internet. The same Similar 
treatment should also appliesy to online search enginges in view of their important role 
in locating information online. Examples of “hosting services” include categories of 
services such as cloud computing, web hosting, paid referencing services or services 
enabling sharing information and content online, including file storage and sharing. 
Intermediary services may be provided in isolation, as a part of another type of 
intermediary service, or simultaneously with other intermediary services. Whether a 
specific service constitutes a mere conduit, caching or hosting service depends solely on 
its technical functionalities, that might evolve in time, and should be assessed on a case-
by-case basis. 
 
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(28)  Providers of intermediary services should not be subject to a monitoring obligation with 
respect to obligations of a general nature. For instance, any monitoring obligation that 
requires the providers of intermediary services to perform a general search of all 
content in order to find any potential illegal content, or that puts excessive burdens or 
requires unreasonable or excessive resources and measures by the providers of 
intermediary services, should be considered a general monitoring obligation. This 
should not prevent monitoring obligations of a specific nature, provided that they meet 
the principles of proportionality and necessity, are in conformity with the conditions as 
set out by any relevant Union law, including the Charter, as interpreted by the Court 
of Justice of the European Union, and the illegality of the content in question has been 
established by a court or is manifest, insofar this does not compel the provider of an 
intermediary service to carry out an independent assessment of that specific content. 
This does not concern monitoring obligations in a specific case and, in particular, The ban 
of general monitoring obligation does not affect orders by national authorities in 
accordance with national legislation, in accordance with the conditions established in this 
Regulation. Such orders should not consist in requiring a service provider to introduce, 
exclusively at its own expense, a screening system which entails general and permanent 
monitoring in order to prevent any future infringement. However, such orders may 
require a provider of hosting services to remove information which it stores, the 
content of which is identical or equivalent to the content of information which was 
previously declared to be unlawful, or to block access to that information, irrespective 
of who requested the storage of that information, provided that the monitoring of and 
search for the information concerned is limited to information properly identified in 
the orderinjunction, such as the name of the person concerned by the infringement 
determined previously, the circumstances in which that infringement was determined 
and equivalent content to that which was declared to be illegal, and does not require 
the provider of hosting services to carry out an independent assessment of that content, 
as interpreted by the Court of Justice of the European Union. Nothing in this Regulation 
should be construed as an imposition of a general monitoring obligation or a general active 
fact-finding obligation, or as a general obligation for providers to take proactive measures to 
relation to illegal content. 
 
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(29)  Depending on the legal system of each Member State and the field of law at issue, national 
judicial or administrative authorities, including law enforcement authorities, may order 
providers of intermediary services to act against one or more certain specific items of illegal 
content or to provide certain specific items of information. The national laws on the basis of 
which such orders are issued differ considerably and the orders are increasingly addressed in 
cross-border situations. In order to ensure that those orders can be complied with in an 
effective and efficient manner, in particular in a cross-border context, so that the public 
authorities concerned can carry out their tasks and the providers are not subject to any 
disproportionate burdens, without unduly affecting the rights and legitimate interests of any 
third parties, it is necessary to set certain conditions that those orders should meet and 
certain complementary requirements relating to the processing of those orders. This 
Regulation harmonises only certain specific minimum requirements for conditions that 
such orders should fulfil in order to make the obligation of providers to inform on the 
effect given to those orders, applicable in accordance with this Regulation. Therefore, 
this Regulation does not provide , without providing a legal basis for the issuing of such 
orders nor for their territorial scopetheir issuing. The applicable Union or national law 
on the basis of which those orders are issued, may require additional conditions and 
should also be the basis for the enforcement of the respective orders, without prejudice 
to Union or bilateral instruments relating to the cross border recognition and 
enforcement of those orders. In case of non-compliance with such orders, the issuing 
Member State should be able to enforce them in accordance with its national law. The 
applicable national laws should be in compliance with Union law, in particular 
including the Charter and the Treaty provisions on the freedom of establishment and 
to provide services within the Union, in particular with regard to online gambling and 
betting services. The application of those national laws for the enforcement of the 
respective orders is without prejudice to applicable Union legal acts or international 
agreements concluded by the Union or by Member States relating to the cross-border 
recognition, execution and enforcement of those orders, in particular in civil and 
criminal matters. The requirements relating to the obligation to inform on the 
processing of those orders, which are laid down in this Regulation, should be subject to 
the rules in Chapter IV. The provider of intermediary services should inform the 
issuing authority about the effect given to the orders without undue delay after 
executing the requested actions in compliance with the deadlines set out in the relevant 
 
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Union or national law. If, in exceptional cases, the provider of intermediary services 
cannot comply with the order, such information should be accompanied by the reasons 
for not complying with the order, including the reasons why the conditions of the order 
have not been fulfilled or where applicable, objectively justifiable technical and 
operational reasons for non-execution and a request for further information and 
clarification. The requirements to provide information on redress available to the 
provider of the service and to the recipient of the service who provided the content, 
includes a requirement to provide information about administrative complaint 
handling mechanisms and judicial redress including appeals against orders issued by 
judicial authorities. 
 
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(30)  A Member State Relevant national authorities should be able to issue such orders 
against content considered illegal or orders to provide information on the basis of 
Union or its national laws, in compliance with Union law, and address them to 
providers of intermediary services, including those which are established in another 
Member State. Orders to act against illegal content or to provide information should be 
issued in compliance with Union law, in particular the Charter. H; however, this should 
be without prejudice to Union law in the field of judicial cooperation in civil or 
criminal matters, including Regulation (EU) No 1215/2012 of the European Parliament 
and of the Council of 12 December 2012 on jurisdiction and the recognition and 
enforcement of judgments in civil and commercial matters and Regulation (EU) …/… 
on European production and preservation orders for electronic evidence in criminal 
matters, and to national criminal or civil procedural law. Therefore where those laws 
in the context of criminal or civil proceedings, provide for additional or incompatible 
conditions than those provided for this Regulation in relation to orders to act against 
illegal content or to provide information, the conditions provided for in this Regulation 
may not apply or may be adapted. In particular, the obligation on the Digital Services 
Coordinator from the Member State of the judicial issuing authority to transmit a copy 
of the orders to all other Digital Services Coordinators may not apply in the context of 
criminal proceedings or may be adapted, where such an obligation conflicts with the 
applicable national criminal procedural laws so provide. Furthermore, the obligation 
for the orders to contain a statement of reasons explaining why the information is 
illegal content, may be adapted where necessary under the applicable national criminal 
procedural laws for the prevention, investigation, detection and prosecution of 
criminal offences. Finally, the obligation on the providers of intermediary services to 
inform the recipient of the service may be delayed in accordance with the applicable 
laws, in particular where the applicable national criminal or civil procedural laws so 
providein the context of criminal or civil proceedings. In addition, the orders should be 
issued in compliance with Regulation (EU) 2016/679 and the prohibition of general 
obligations to monitor information or to actively seek facts or circumstances indicating 
illegal activity laid down in this Regulation. The conditions and requirements laid down in 
this Regulation which apply to orders to act against illegal content are without prejudice to 
other Union acts providing for similar systems for acting against specific types of illegal 
content, such as Regulation (EU) 2021…/784…. [proposed Regulation addressing the 
 
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dissemination of terrorist content online], Regulation (EU) 2019/1020, or or Regulation 
(EU) 2017/2394, or Regulation (EU) 2019/1020, that confers specific powers to order the 
provision of information on Member State consumer law enforcement authorities, whilst the 
conditions and requirements that apply to orders to provide information are without 
prejudice to other Union acts providing for similar relevant rules for specific sectors. Those 
conditions and requirements should be without prejudice to retention and preservation rules 
under applicable national law, in conformity compliance with Union law and confidentiality 
requests by law enforcement authorities related to the non-disclosure of information. The 
conditions and requirements for orders to act against illegal content under this 
Regulation should not affect the possibility for Member States to require a provider of 
intermediary services to prevent an infringement, in compliance with this Regulation, 
in particular the prohibition of general monitoring obligations, and with Union law as 
interpreted by the Court of Justice of the European Union. Such conditions and 
requirements should be fulfilled at the latest when the order is transmitted to the 
provider concerned. The order may be adopted in one of the official languages of the 
issuing authority of the Member State. Where this language is different from the 
language declared by the provider of intermediary services or from another official 
language of the Union, bilaterally agreed between the authority issuing the order and 
the provider of intermediary services, the transmission of the order should be 
accompanied by a translation of at least the main elements of the order which are set 
out in this Regulation. Where a provider of intermediary services has bilaterally 
agreed to use a certain language with the authorities of a Member State, it is 
encouraged to accept orders in the same language issued by authorities in other 
Member States. 
 
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(31)  The territorial scope of such orders to act against illegal content should be clearly set out on 
the basis of the applicable Union or national law enabling the issuance of the order and 
should not exceed what is strictly necessary to achieve its objectives. In that regard, the 
national judicial or administrative authority, including a law enforcement authority, 
issuing the order should balance the objective that the order seeks to achieve, in accordance 
with the legal basis enabling its issuance, with the rights and legitimate interests of all third 
parties that may be affected by the order, in particular their fundamental rights under the 
Charter. In particular in a cross-border context, the effect of the order should be 
limited to the territory of the issuing Member State, unless the illegality of the content 
derives directly from Union law or the issuing authority considers that the rights at 
stake require a wider territorial scope, in accordance with Union and international 
law, including the interests of international comity. In addition, where the order referring 
to the specific information may have effects beyond the territory of the Member State of the 
authority concerned, in particular in a cross border context, the authority should assess 
whether the information at issue is likely to constitute illegal content in other Member States 
concerned and, where relevant, take account of the relevant rules of Union law or 
international law and the interests of international comity. 
(32)  The orders to provide information regulated by this Regulation concern the production of 
specific information about individual recipients of the intermediary service concerned who 
are identified in those orders for the purposes of determining compliance by the recipients of 
the services with applicable Union or national rules. Such orders could request 
information aiming to enable the identification of the recipients of the intermediary 
service concerned. Therefore, orders about information on a group of recipients of the 
service who are not specifically identified, including orders to provide aggregate 
information required for statistical purposes or evidence-based policy-making, should 
remain unaffected by the rules of this Regulation on the provision of information. 
 
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(33)  Orders to act against illegal content and to provide information are subject to the rules 
safeguarding the competence of the Member State where the service provider addressed is 
established and laying down possible derogations from that competence in certain cases, set 
out in Article 3 of Directive 2000/31/EC, only if the conditions of that Article are met. 
Given that the orders in question relate to specific items of illegal content and information, 
respectively, where they are addressed to providers of intermediary services established in 
another Member State, they do not in principle restrict those providers’ freedom to provide 
their services across borders. Therefore, the rules set out in Article 3 of Directive 
2000/31/EC, including those regarding the need to justify measures derogating from the 
competence of the Member State where the service provider is established on certain 
specified grounds and regarding the notification of such measures, do not apply in respect of 
those orders. 
(33a)  This Regulation does not prevent the relevant national judicial and administrative 
authorities, on the basis of national or Union law, from issuing orders to restore one or 
more specific items of legal content which is in conformity with the terms and 
conditions of a given provider of intermediary services but has been removed. 
(34)  In order to achieve the objectives of this Regulation, and in particular to improve the 
functioning of the internal market and ensure a safe and transparent online environment, it is 
necessary to establish a clear and balanced set of harmonised due diligence obligations for 
providers of intermediary services. Those obligations should aim in particular to guarantee 
different public policy objectives such as the safety and trust of the recipients of the service, 
including minors and vulnerable users at particular risk of being subject to hate speech, 
sexual harassments or other discriminatory actions, protect the relevant fundamental 
rights enshrined in the Charter, to ensure meaningful accountability of those providers and 
to empower recipients and other affected parties, whilst facilitating the necessary oversight 
by competent authorities. 
 
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(35)  In that regard, it is important that the due diligence obligations are adapted to the type, size 
and nature of the intermediary service concerned. This Regulation therefore sets out basic 
obligations applicable to all providers of intermediary services, as well as additional 
obligations for providers of hosting services and, more specifically, providers of online 
platforms and of very large online platforms. To the extent that providers of intermediary 
services may fall within those different categories in view of the nature of their services and 
their size, they should comply with all of the corresponding obligations of this Regulation. 
Those harmonised due diligence obligations, which should be reasonable and non-arbitrary, 
are needed to achieve the identified public policy concerns, such as safeguarding the 
legitimate interests of the recipients of the service, addressing illegal practices and 
protecting fundamental rights enshrined in the Charter online. 
(36)  In order to facilitate smooth and efficient communications relating to matters covered by this 
Regulation, providers of intermediary services should be required to establish designate 
single electronic point of contact and to publish relevant information relating to thateir 
point of contact, including the languages to be used in such communications. The electronic 
point of contact can also be used by trusted flaggers and by professional entities which are 
under a specific relationship with the provider of intermediary services. In contrast to the 
legal representative, the electronic point of contact should serve operational purposes and 
should not be required necessarily have to have a physical location. 
 
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(37)  Providers of intermediary services that are established in a third country that offer services 
in the Union should designate a sufficiently mandated legal representative in the Union and 
provide information relating to their legal representatives. In order to comply with this 
obligation, moreover, the providers of intermediary services should ensure that the 
designated legal representative has the necessary powers and resources to cooperate 
with the relevant authorities. This could be the case, for example, where a provider 
appoints a subsidiary undertaking of the same group of the provider, or a fortiori its 
parent undertaking, if they are established in the Union. This should allow for the 
effective oversight and, where necessary, enforcement of this Regulation by the Board, 
the Commission and the national competent authorities, including authorities 
executing the powers of these competent authorities , so as to allow for the effective 
oversight and, where necessary, enforcement of this Regulation in relation to those 
providers. It should be possible for the legal representative to also function as electronic 
point of contact, provided the relevant requirements of this Regulation are complied with. 
(38)  Whilst the freedom of contract of providers of intermediary services should in principle be 
respected, it is appropriate to set certain rules on the content, application and enforcement of 
the terms and conditions of those providers in the interests of transparency, the protection of 
recipients of the service and the avoidance of unfair or arbitrary outcomes. When applying 
and enforcing restrictions imposed in relation to the use of their service, providers of 
intermediary services should pay regard to international standards for the protection 
of fundamental rights, such as the UN Guiding Principles on Business and Human 
Rights, which can provide guidance to observe the applicable fundamental rights as 
enshrined in the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union. 
 
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(39)  To ensure an adequate level of transparency and accountability, providers of intermediary 
services should annually report, in accordance with the harmonised requirements contained 
in this Regulation, on the content moderation they engage in, including the measures taken 
as a result of the application and enforcement of their terms and conditions. However, so as 
to avoid disproportionate burdens, those transparency reporting obligations should not apply 
to providers that are micro- or small enterprises as defined in Commission Recommendation 
2003/361/EC30
(40)  Providers of hosting services play a particularly important role in tackling illegal content 
online, as they store information provided by and at the request of the recipients of the 
service and typically give other recipients access thereto, sometimes on a large scale. It is 
important that all providers of hosting services, regardless of their size, put in place user-
friendly notice and action mechanisms that facilitate the notification of specific items of 
information that the notifying party considers to be illegal content to the provider of hosting 
services concerned ('notice'), pursuant to which that provider can decide whether or not it 
agrees with that assessment and wishes to remove or disable access to that content ('action'). 
Such mechanisms should be at least as easy to find and use as notification mechanisms 
for content that violates the terms and conditions of the hosting service provider. 
Provided the requirements on notices are met, it should be possible for individuals or entities 
to notify multiple specific items of allegedly illegal content through a single notice. The 
obligation to put in place notice and action mechanisms should apply, for instance, to file 
storage and sharing services, web hosting services, advertising servers and paste bins, in as 
far as they qualify as providers of hosting services covered by this Regulation. 
                                                 
30 
Commission Recommendation 2003/361/EC of 6 May 2003 concerning the definition of 
micro, small and medium-sized enterprises (OJ L 124, 20.5.2003, p. 36). 
 
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(41)  The rules on such notice and action mechanisms should be harmonised at Union level, so as 
to provide for the timely, diligent and objective processing of notices on the basis of rules 
that are uniform, transparent and clear and that provide for robust safeguards to protect the 
right and legitimate interests of all affected parties, in particular their fundamental rights 
guaranteed by the Charter, irrespective of the Member State in which those parties are 
established or reside and of the field of law at issue. The fundamental rights include but are 
not limited to, as the case may be, the right to freedom of expression and information, the 
right to respect for private and family life, the right to protection of personal data, the right 
to non-discrimination and the right to an effective remedy of the recipients of the service; 
the freedom to conduct a business, including the freedom of contract, of service providers; 
as well as the right to human dignity, the rights of the child, the right to protection of 
property, including intellectual property, and the right to non-discrimination of parties 
affected by illegal content. Providers of hosting services should act upon notices in a 
timely manner, in particular, by taking into account the type of illegal content being 
notified and the urgency of taking action. For instance, providers can be expected to 
act without delay when allegedly illegal content involving an imminent threat to life or 
safety of persons is being notified. The provider of hosting services should inform the 
individual or entity notifying the specific content without undue delay after taking a 
decision whether to act upon the notice. 
 
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(41a)  Those mechanisms should allow for the submission of notices which are sufficiently 
precise and adequately substantiated to enable the hosting provider concerned to take 
an informed and diligent decision in respect of the content to which the notice relates, 
in particular whether or not that content is to be considered illegal content and is to be 
removed or access thereto is to be disabled. Those mechanisms should be such as to 
facilitate the provision of notices that contain an explanation of the reasons why the 
notice provider considers that content to be illegal content and a clear indication of the 
location of that content. The information provided in the notice should contain 
sufficient information to enable the provider of intermediary services to identify, 
without a detailed legal examination, that that content is manifestly illegal and that its 
removal is compatible with freedom of expression. Where, on the basis of the 
information provided in the notice, it is not evident to a layperson, without any 
substantive analysis, that the content is illegal, such content should not be removed nor 
should access to it be disabled. Except for the submission of notices relating to offences 
referred to in Articles 3 to 7 of Directive 2011/93/EU, it is necessary to know the 
identity of the notice provider, for instance to avoid misuses or to identify alleged 
infringements to personality rights or intellectual property rights. 
 
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(42)  Where a hosting service provider decides to remove or disable information provided by a 
recipient of the service or to otherwise restrict its visibility or monetisation, for instance 
following receipt of a notice or acting on its own initiative, including exclusively by through 
the use of automated means, that provider should inform in a clear and easily 
comprehensible way the recipient of its decision, the reasons for its decision and the 
available redress possibilities to contest the decision , in view of the negative consequences 
that such decisions may have for the recipient, including as regards the exercise of its 
fundamental right to freedom of expression. That obligation should apply irrespective of the 
reasons for the decision, in particular whether the action has been taken because the 
information notified is considered to be illegal content or incompatible with the applicable 
terms and conditions. Restriction of visibility may consist in demotion in ranking or in 
recommender systems, as well as in limiting accessibility by one or more 
receipientsrecipients of the service, including ‘shadow banning’. The monetisation via 
advertising revenue of content provided by the recipient of the service can be restricted 
by suspending or terminating the monetary payment or revenue associated to that 
content. Hosting service providers should also publish such decisions and respective 
statement of reasons the same information in a publicly available structured database 
maintained by the Commission. The database should not include the allegedly illegal 
content itself or the content infringing the terms and conditions of the service provider, 
but only the information presented in the statement of reasons for restricting the 
content, and should excludeing personal data. Available recourses to challenge the 
decision of the hosting service provider should always include judicial redress in 
accordance with the laws of the Member State concerned. 
 
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(42a)  [previous recital 48] A provider of hosting services n online platform may in some 
instances become aware, such as through a notice by a notifying party or through its own 
voluntary measures, of information relating to certain activity of a recipient of the service, 
such as the provision of certain types of illegal content, that reasonably justify, having 
regard to all relevant circumstances of which the online platformprovider of hosting 
services is aware, the suspicion that the recipient may have committed, may be committing 
or is likely to commit a serious criminal offence involving a threat to the life or safety of 
person or persons, such as offences specified in Directive 2011/36/EU of the European 
Parliament and of the Council31, Directive 2011/93/EU of the European Parliament and of 
the Council32 or Directive (EU) 2017/541 of the European Parliament and of the 
Council33. In such instances, the online platformprovider of hosting services should inform 
without delay the competent law enforcement authorities of such suspicion, providing all 
relevant information available to it, including where relevant the content in question and an 
explanation of its suspicion. This Regulation does not provide the legal basis for profiling of 
recipients of the services with a view to the possible identification of criminal offences by 
providers of hosting servicesonline platforms. Providers of hosting servicesOnline 
platforms should also respect other applicable rules of Union or national law for the 
protection of the rights and freedoms of individuals when informing law enforcement 
authorities. 
                                                 
31 
Directive 2011/36/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 5 April 2011 
on preventing and combating trafficking in human beings and protecting its victims, 
and replacing Council Framework Decision 2002/629/JHA (OJ L 101, 15.4.2011, p. 1).
 
32 
Directive 2011/93/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 13 December 2011 
on combating the sexual abuse and sexual exploitation of children and child pornography, 
and replacing Council Framework Decision 2004/68/JHA (OJ L 335, 17.12.2011, p. 1). 
33 
Directive (EU) 2017/541 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 15 March 
2017 on combating terrorism and replacing Council Framework Decision 
2002/475/JHA and amending Council Decision 2005/671/JHA (OJ L 88, 31.3.2017, p. 
6).
 
 
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(43)  To avoid disproportionate burdens, the additional obligations imposed on providers of 
online platforms under this Regulation should not apply to micro or small enterprises as 
defined in Recommendation 2003/361/EC of the Commission,34 unless their reach and 
impact is such that they meet the criteria to qualify as very large online platforms under this 
Regulation. The consolidation rules laid down in that Recommendation help ensure that any 
circumvention of those additional obligations is prevented. The exemption of micro- and 
small enterprises from those additional obligations should not be understood as affecting 
their ability to set up, on a voluntary basis, a system that complies with one or more of those 
obligations. 
                                                 
34 
Commission Recommendation 2003/361/EC of 6 May 2003 concerning the definition of 
micro, small and medium-sized enterprises (OJ L 124, 20.5.2003, p. 36). 
 
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(44)  Recipients of the service and individuals and entities that have submitted a notice should 
be able to easily and effectively contest certain decisions of providers of online platforms 
that negatively affect them. Therefore, providers of online platforms should be required to 
provide for internal complaint-handling systems, which meet certain conditions aimed at 
ensuring that the systems are easily accessible and lead to swift and fair outcomes, and are 
subject to human reviewSuch systems should enable all recipients of the service users to 
lodge a complaint and should not set up formal requirements such as referral to specific, 
relevant legal provisions or elaborate legal explanations. The possibility to lodge a 
complaint for the reversal of the contested decisions should be available for at least six 
months, to be calculated from the time of informing the recipient of the service of the 
decision. In addition, provision should be made for the possibility of out-of-court dispute 
settlement of disputes in good faith, including those that could not be resolved in 
satisfactory manner through the internal complaint-handling systems, by certified 
authorised bodies that have the requisite independence, means and expertise to carry out 
their activities in a fair, swift and cost-effective manner. The fees charged by the dispute 
settlement bodies should be reasonable, accessible, attractive, inexpensive for 
consumer and proportionate, and assessed on a case-by-case basis. Online platforms 
should be able to refuse to engage in dispute settlement in the case when the same 
dispute regarding the same content has already been resolved or is being reviewed by 
another dispute settlement body provided that they comply with the existing or future 
outcome of the dispute settlement consistently. Recipients of the service and individuals 
and entities that have submitted notices should be able to choose between the internal 
complaint mechanism, an out-of-court dispute settlement or judicial redress. The 
possibilities to contest decisions of providers of online platforms thus created should 
complement, yet leave unaffected in all respects, the possibility to seek judicial redress in 
accordance with the laws of the Member State concerned, and ultimately exercising their 
right of access to the judicial system as provided for in Article 47 of the Charter of 
Fundamental Rights of the European Union
 
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(45)  For contractual consumer-to-business disputes over the purchase of goods or services, 
Directive 2013/11/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council35 ensures that Union 
consumers and businesses in the Union have access to quality-certified alternative dispute 
resolution entities. In this regard, it should be clarified that the rules of this Regulation on 
out-of-court dispute settlement are without prejudice to that Directive, including the right of 
consumers under that Directive to withdraw from the procedure at any stage if they are 
dissatisfied with the performance or the operation of the procedure. 
                                                 
35 
Directive 2013/11/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 21 May 2013 on 
alternative dispute resolution for consumer disputes and amending Regulation (EC) No 
2006/2004 and Directive 2009/22/EC (OJ L 165, 18.6.2013, p. 63). 
 
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(46)  Action against illegal content can be taken more quickly and reliably where providers of 
online platforms take the necessary measures to ensure that notices submitted by trusted 
flaggers through the notice and action mechanisms required by this Regulation are treated 
with priority, without prejudice to the requirement to process and decide upon all notices 
submitted under those mechanisms in a timely, diligent and objective manner. Such trusted 
flagger status should be awarded by the Digital Services Coordinator of the Member 
State in which the applicant is established establishment and should be recognised by 
all providers of online platforms within the scope of this Regulation. 
Such trusted 
flagger status should only be awarded to entities, and not individuals, that have 
demonstrated, among other things, that they have particular expertise and competence in 
tackling illegal content, that they represent collective interests and that they work in a 
diligent and objective manner. Industry associations representing their members' 
interests should apply for the status of trusted flaggers, so as to limit the number of 
trusted flaggers awarded by the Digital Services Coordinator, without prejudice to the 
right of private parties to enter into bilateral agreements with online platforms. 
Such 
entities can be public in nature, such as, for terrorist content, internet referral units of 
national law enforcement authorities or of the European Union Agency for Law 
Enforcement Cooperation (‘Europol’) or they can be non-governmental organisations and 
private or semi-public bodies, such as the organisations part of the INHOPE network of 
hotlines for reporting child sexual abuse material and organisations committed to notifying 
illegal racist and xenophobic expressions online. For intellectual property rights, 
organisations of industry and of right holders could be awarded trusted flagger status, where 
they have demonstrated that they meet the applicable conditions. The rules of this 
Regulation on trusted flaggers should not be understood to prevent providers of online 
platforms from giving similar treatment to notices submitted by entities or individuals that 
have not been awarded trusted flagger status under this Regulation, from otherwise 
cooperating with other entities, in accordance with the applicable law, including this 
Regulation and Regulation (EU) 2016/794 of the European Parliament and of the Council.36 
                                                 
36 
Regulation (EU) 2016/794 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 11 May 2016 
on the European Union Agency for Law Enforcement Cooperation (Europol) and replacing 
and repealing Council Decisions 2009/371/JHA, 2009/934/JHA, 2009/935/JHA, 
2009/936/JHA and 2009/968/JHA, OJ L 135, 24.5.2016, p. 53. 
 
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(47)  The misuse of services of online platforms by frequently providing manifestly illegal 
content or by frequently submitting manifestly unfounded notices or complaints under the 
mechanisms and systems, respectively, established under this Regulation undermines trust 
and harms the rights and legitimate interests of the parties concerned. Therefore, there is a 
need to put in place appropriate and proportionate safeguards against such misuse. 
Information should be considered to be manifestly illegal content and notices or complaints 
should be considered manifestly unfounded where it is evident to a layperson, without any 
substantive analysis, that the content is illegal respectively that the notices or complaints are 
unfounded. Under certain conditions, providers of online platforms should temporarily 
suspend their relevant activities in respect of the person engaged in abusive behaviour. This 
is without prejudice to the freedom by providers of online platforms to determine their 
terms and conditions and establish stricter measures in the case of manifestly illegal content 
related to serious crimes, such as child sexual abuse material. For reasons of transparency, 
this possibility should be set out, clearly and in sufficiently detail, in the terms and 
conditions of the online platforms. Redress should always be open to the decisions taken in 
this regard by providers of online platforms and they should be subject to oversight by the 
competent Digital Services Coordinator. Providers of online platforms should send a 
prior warning before deciding on the suspension, which should include the reasons for 
the possible suspension and the means of redress against the decision of the providers 
of the online platform. The rules of this Regulation on misuse should not prevent 
providers of online platforms from taking other measures to address the provision of illegal 
content by recipients of their service or other misuse of their services, in accordance with the 
applicable Union and national law. Those rules are without prejudice to any possibility to 
hold the persons engaged in misuse liable, including for damages, provided for in Union or 
national law. 
 
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(48)  An online platform may in some instances become aware, such as through a notice by a 
notifying party or through its own voluntary measures, of information relating to certain 
activity of a recipient of the service, such as the provision of certain types of illegal content, 
that reasonably justify, having regard to all relevant circumstances of which the online 
platform is aware, the suspicion that the recipient may have committed, may be committing 
or is likely to commit a serious criminal offence involving a threat to the life or safety of 
person, such as offences specified in Directive 2011/93/EU of the European Parliament and 
of the Council37. In such instances, the online platform should inform without delay the 
competent law enforcement authorities of such suspicion, providing all relevant information 
available to it, including where relevant the content in question and an explanation of its 
suspicion. This Regulation does not provide the legal basis for profiling of recipients of the 
services with a view to the possible identification of criminal offences by online platforms. 
Online platforms should also respect other applicable rules of Union or national law for the 
protection of the rights and freedoms of individuals when informing law enforcement 
authorities. [moved to Recital 42a] 
                                                 
37 
Directive 2011/93/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 13 December 2011 
on combating the sexual abuse and sexual exploitation of children and child pornography, 
and replacing Council Framework Decision 2004/68/JHA (OJ L 335, 17.12.2011, p. 1). 
 
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(49)  In order to contribute to a safe, trustworthy and transparent online environment for 
consumers, as well as for other interested parties such as competing traders and holders of 
intellectual property rights, and to deter traders from selling products or services in violation 
of the applicable rules, online platforms allowing consumers to conclude distance contracts 
with tradersmarketplaces should ensure that such traders are traceable. The trader should 
therefore be required to provide certain essential information to the provider of online 
platformmarketplace, including for purposes of promoting messages on or offering 
products. That requirement should also be applicable to traders that promote messages on 
products or services on behalf of brands, based on underlying agreements. Those online 
platforms marketplaces should store all information in a secure manner for the duration of 
their contractual relationship with the trader and 6 months thereafter. This is 
necessarya reasonable period of time that does not exceed what is necessary, so that it the 
information can be accessed, in accordance with the applicable law, including on the 
protection of personal data, by public authorities and private parties with a legitimate 
interest, including through the orders to provide information referred to in this Regulation. 
Without prejudice to the definition provided for in this Regulation, any trader, 
irrespective of whether it is a natural or legal person, identified on the basis of Article 
6a, paragraph(1)(b) of Directive 2011/83/EU and Article 7 paragraph (4)(f) of Directive 
2005/29/EC should be traceable when offering a product or service through an online 
platform. Similarly, the traceability of holders of domain names for the purpose of 
contributing to the security, stability and resilience of domain name systems, which in 
turn contributes to a high common level of cybersecurity within the Union, is ensured 
by Directive …/… [proposed Directive on measures for a high common level of 
cybersecurity across the Union, repealing Directive (EU) 2016/1148], which introduces 
the obligation for top-level domain registries and the entities providing domain name 
registration services for the top-level domain, so-called registrars, to collect, maintain 
in a database and provide lawful access to accurate and complete domain name 
registration data. Directive 2000/31/EC obliges all information society services 
providers to render easily, directly and permanently accessible to the recipients of the 
service and competent authorities certain information allowing the identification of all 
providers. 
 
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(50)  To ensure an efficient and adequate application of that obligation, without imposing any 
disproportionate burdens, the providers of the online platforms covered marketplaces 
should make reasonable efforts to verify, prior to the use of their service, the reliability of 
the information provided by the traders concerned, iIn particular, the providers of online 
marketplaces should use by using freely available official online databases and online 
interfaces, such as national trade registers and the VAT Information Exchange System38, or 
by requestingrequest the traders concerned to provide trustworthy supporting documents, 
such as copies of identity documents, certified bank payment accounts’ statements, 
company certificates and trade register certificates. They may also use other sources, 
available for use at a distance, which offer a similar degree of reliability for the purpose of 
complying with this obligation. However, the providers of online platforms covered 
marketplaces should not be required to engage in excessive or costly online fact-finding 
exercises or to carry out verifications on the spot. Nor should such providers online 
platforms, which have made the reasonable efforts required by this Regulation, be 
understood as guaranteeing the reliability of the information towards consumer or other 
interested parties. Providers of Such online platforms marketplaces should also design and 
organise their online interface in a way that enables traders to comply with their obligations 
under Union law, in particular the requirements set out in Articles 6 and 8 of Directive 
2011/83/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council39, Article 7 of Directive 
2005/29/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council40 and Article 3 of Directive 
98/6/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council41  
                                                 
38 
https://ec.europa.eu/taxation_customs/vies/vieshome.do?selectedLanguage=en 
39 
Directive 2011/83/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 25 October 2011 on 
consumer rights, amending Council Directive 93/13/EEC and Directive 1999/44/EC of the 
European Parliament and of the Council and repealing Council Directive 85/577/EEC and 
Directive 97/7/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council. 
40 
Directive 2005/29/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 11 May 2005 
concerning unfair business to consumer commercial practices in the internal market and 
amending Council Directive 84/450/EEC, Directives 97/7/EC, 98/27/EC and 2002/65/EC of 
the European Parliament and of the Council and Regulation (EC) No 2006/2004 of the 
European Parliament and of the Council (‘Unfair Commercial Practices Directive’). 
41 
Directive 98/6/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 February 1998 on 
consumer protection in the indication of the prices of products offered to consumers. 
 
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Providers of online marketplaces should store the information received by traders for six 
months after the end of the contractual relationship with the traders concerned. This 
obligation leaves unaffected potential obligations to preserve certain content for longer 
periods of time, on the basis of other Union law or national laws, in compliance with Union 
law. 
(50a)  Providers of online marketplaces should design and organise their online interface in a 
way that enables traders to comply with their obligations under Union law, in 
particular the requirements set out in Articles 6 and 8 of Directive 2011/83/EU of the 
European Parliament and of the Council42, Article 7 of Directive 2005/29/EC of the 
European Parliament and of the Council43 and Article 3 of Directive 98/6/EC of the 
European Parliament and of the Council44. For that purpose, the providers of online 
marketplaces should make reasonable efforts to assess whether the traders using their 
services have uploaded the information on their online interfaces, in line with 
applicable Union law. This should not amount to an obligation for providers of online 
marketplaces to generally monitor the products or services offered by traders through 
their services nor a general fact-finding obligation, in particular to assess the accuracy 
of the information provided by traders. The online interfaces should be user-friendly 
and easily accessible for traders and consumers. 
                                                 
42 
Directive 2011/83/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 25 October 2011 on 
consumer rights, amending Council Directive 93/13/EEC and Directive 1999/44/EC of the 
European Parliament and of the Council and repealing Council Directive 85/577/EEC and 
Directive 97/7/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council. 
43 
Directive 2005/29/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 11 May 2005 
concerning unfair business-to-consumer commercial practices in the internal market and 
amending Council Directive 84/450/EEC, Directives 97/7/EC, 98/27/EC and 2002/65/EC of 
the European Parliament and of the Council and Regulation (EC) No 2006/2004 of the 
European Parliament and of the Council (‘Unfair Commercial Practices Directive’). 
44 
Directive 98/6/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 February 1998 on 
consumer protection in the indication of the prices of products offered to consumers. 
 
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(51)  In view of the particular responsibilities and obligations of providers of online platforms, 
they should be made subject to transparency reporting obligations, which apply in addition 
to the transparency reporting obligations applicable to all providers of intermediary services 
under this Regulation. For the purposes of determining whether online platforms may be 
very large online platforms that are subject to certain additional obligations under this 
Regulation, the transparency reporting obligations for providers of online platforms should 
include certain obligations relating to the publication and communication of information on 
the average monthly active recipients of the service in the Union. 
 
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(52)  Online advertisingement plays an important role in the online environment, including in 
relation to the provision of the services of online platforms, when the service provider 
provider of online platform receives remuneration as economic consideration for the 
placement of the specific advertisement on the platform's online interface, for example 
as direct payment or increased sale commission. However, online advertising ement can 
contribute to significant risks, ranging from advertisements that is itselfare themselves 
illegal content, to contributing to financial incentives for the publication or amplification of 
illegal or otherwise harmful content and activities online, or the discriminatory 
presentationdisplay of advertising with an impact on the equal treatment and opportunities 
of citizens. In addition to the requirements resulting from Article 6 of Directive 2000/31/EC, 
providers of online platforms should therefore be required to ensure that the recipients of 
the service have certain individualised information necessary for them to understand when 
and on whose behalf the advertisement is displayedpresentedThey should ensure that the 
information is salient, including through standardised visual or audio marks, clearly 
identifiable and unambiguous for the average user, and should be adapted to the 
nature of the individual service’s online interface. In addition, recipients of the service 
should have information on the main parameters used for determining that specific 
advertismenting is to be displayed presented to them, providing meaningful explanations of 
the logic used to that end, including when this is based on profiling. Such explanations 
should include information on the method used for displaying presenting the 
advertisement – for example whether it is contextual, behavioural or other type of 
advertising – and, where applicable, the main profiling criteria used. The requirements 
of this Regulation on the provision of information relating to advertisement is without 
prejudice to the application of the relevant provisions of Regulation (EU) 2016/679, in 
particular those regarding the right to object, automated individual decision-making, 
including profiling and specifically the need to obtain consent of the data subject prior to the 
processing of personal data for targeted advertising. Similarly, it is without prejudice to the 
provisions laid down in Directive 2002/58/EC in particular those regarding the storage of 
information in terminal equipment and the access to information stored therein. Finally, this 
Regulation complements the application of the Directive 2010/13/EU which imposes 
measures to enable users to declare audiovisual commercial communications in user-
generated videos. 
 
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(53)  Given the importance of very large online platforms, due to their reach, in particular as 
expressed in number of recipients of the service, in facilitating public debate, economic 
transactions and the dissemination of information, opinions and ideas and in influencing 
how recipients obtain and communicate information online, it is necessary to impose 
specific obligations on the providers of those platforms, in addition to the obligations 
applicable to all online platforms. Due to their critical role in locating and disseminating 
information online, it is also necessary to impose those obligations, to the extent they 
are applicable, on the providers of very large online search engines, in addition to the 
obligations applicable to all intermediaries. Those additional obligations on providers of 
very large online platforms and of very large online search engines are necessary to 
address those public policy concerns, there being no alternative and less restrictive measures 
that would effectively achieve the same result. 
 
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(54)  Very large online platforms and very large online search engines may cause societal risks, 
different in scope and impact from those caused by smaller platforms. Providers of such 
very large online platforms and very large online search engines should therefore bear 
the highest standard of due diligence obligations, proportionate to their societal impact 
and means. Once the number of recipients of a platform or a search engine reaches a 
significant share of the Union population, the systemic risks the platform or search engine 
poses may have a disproportionately negative impact in the Union. Such significant reach 
should be considered to exist where the number of recipients exceeds an operational 
threshold set at 45 million, that is, a number equivalent to 10 % of the Union population. In 
order to determine the reach of a given online platform or online search engine, it is 
necessary to establish the average number of recipients of such service, represented by 
any recipient actually engaging with the service at least once in a given period of time. 
Examples of such engagement include viewing content by scrolling through an online 
interface or uploading content, and not only interacting with content by clicking on, 
commenting, linking, sharing, purchasing or carrying out transactions on an online 
platform, such as an online marketplace. Consequently, the notion of active recipient of 
the service does not necessarily coincide with that of a registered user of a service, and 
it cumulatively covers recipients of the service who provide content, such as traders on 
an online marketplace, and those who view content. As regards online search engines, 
the concept of active recipients of the service should cover those who view content on 
their online interface, but not, for example, therthe owners of the websites indexed by 
the online search engine, as they do not actively engage with the service. The number of 
active recipients of a service should include all unique recipients of the service that 
engage with the service irrespective of the potentially different interfaces made 
available, such as websites or apps, including where the interfaces are accessed 
through different URLs or domain names. However, it should not include recipients of 
other third party services that make available through their own online interfaces 
content hosted by the provider of online platform or indexed by a provider of online 
search engine. This Regulation does not require providers of online platforms or online 
search engines to perform specific tracking of individuals online, nor to discount 
automated users such as bots. Accordingly, the number of average monthly active 
recipients of the service should reflect the recipients actually reached by the service either by 
being exposed to content or by providing content disseminated on the platforms’ interface in 
 
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that period of time. The operational threshold and methodology to determine the active 
recipients of an online platform or an online search engine should be kept up to date through 
amendments enacted by delegated acts, where necessary, and reflect the nature of the service 
and the way recipients of the service interact with it. Such very large online platforms 
should therefore bear the highest standard of due diligence obligations, proportionate to their 
societal impact and means. 
(55)  In view of the network effects characterising the platform economy, the user base of an 
online platform may quickly expand and reach the dimension of a very large online 
platform, with the related impact on the internal market. This may be the case in the event of 
exponential growth experienced in short periods of time, or by a large global presence and 
turnover allowing the online platform to fully exploit network effects and economies of 
scale and of scope. A high annual turnover or market capitalisation can in particular be an 
indication of fast scalability in terms of user reach. In those cases, the Digital Services 
Coordinator of the establishment should be able to request more frequent reporting from 
provider of the platform on the user base to be able to timely identify the moment at which 
that platform should be designated as a very large online platform for the purposes of this 
Regulation. 
 
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(55a)  In view of the risks posed by the significant reach of very large online platforms, as 
well as the resources that are typically available to the providers of such platforms, it is 
desirable and reasonable to expect that very large online platforms have the necessary 
means, including appropriate human and material resources, as well as procedures, to 
operate notice and action mechanisms that allow assessing whether notices submitted 
by trusted flaggers relate to manifestly illegal content within [24 hours /48 hours] on 
average. 
(56)  Very large online platforms and very large online search engines are can be used in a way 
that strongly influences safety online, the shaping of public opinion and discourse, as well as 
on online trade. The way they design their services is generally optimised to benefit their 
often advertising-driven business models and can cause societal concerns. In the absence of 
eEffective and fundamental rights based regulation and enforcement is necessary in 
order to , they can set the rules of the game, without effectively identifying and mitigateing 
the risks and the societal and economic harm that may arisethey can cause. Under this 
Regulation, providers of very large online platforms and of very large online search 
engines should therefore assess the systemic risks stemming from the functioning and use of 
their service, as well as by potential misuses by the recipients of the service, and take 
appropriate mitigating measures. 
 
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(57)  Three categories of systemic risks should be assessed in-depth. A first category concerns the 
risks associated with the misuse of their service through the dissemination of illegal content, 
such as the dissemination of child sexual abuse material or illegal hate speech,   or other 
types of misuse of their services for criminal offences, and the conduct of illegal 
activities, such as the sale of products or services prohibited by Union or national law, 
including counterfeit products. For example, and without prejudice to the personal 
responsibility of the recipient of the service of very large online platforms and of very large 
online search engines for possible illegality of his or her activity under the applicable law, 
such dissemination or activities may constitute a significant systematic risk where access to 
such content may be amplified through accounts with a particularly wide reach. A second 
category concerns the impact of the service on the exercise of fundamental rights, as 
protected by the Charter of Fundamental Rights, including the freedom of expression and 
information, the right to private life, the right to non-discrimination and the rights of the 
child. Such risks may arise, for example, in relation to the design of the algorithmic systems 
used by the very large online platform or by very large online search engine or the misuse 
of their service through the submission of abusive notices or other methods for silencing 
speech or hampering competition. When assessing risks to the rights of the child, 
providers should consider how easily understandable to minors the design and 
functioning of the service is, as well as how minors can be exposed through their 
service to content that may impair minors’ health, physical, mental and moral 
development. Such risks may arise, for example, in relation to the design of online 
interfaces which intentionally or unintentionally exploit the weaknesses and 
inexperience of minors or which may cause addictive behaviour. A third category of 
risks concerns the intentional and, oftentimes, coordinated manipulation of the platform’s or 
search engine's service, with a foreseeable impact on health, civic discourse, electoral 
processes, public security, and protection of minors, having regard to the need to safeguard 
public order, protect privacy and fight fraudulent and deceptive commercial practices. Such 
risks may arise, for example, through the inauthentic use of the service, such as the 
creation of fake accounts, the use of bots or deceptive use of a service, and other automated 
or partially automated behaviours, which may lead to the rapid and widespread 
dissemination of information that is illegal content or incompatible with an online platform’s 
or online search engine's terms and conditions. 
 
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(58)  Providers of vVery large online platforms and of very large online search engines should 
deploy the necessary means to diligently mitigate the systemic risks identified in the risk 
assessment. TheyVery large online platforms should under such mitigating measures 
consider, for example, enhancing or otherwise adapting the design and functioning of their 
content moderation, algorithmic recommender systems and online interfaces, so that they 
discourage and limit the dissemination of illegal content, adapting their decision-making 
processes, or adapting their terms and conditions. The design and online interface of 
services primarily aimed at minors or pre-dominantly used by them should take into 
account their best interests, and ensure that their services are organised in a way that 
minors are easily able to access mechanisms within this Regulation, including notice 
and action and complaint mechanisms. The providers of very large online platforms 
that provide access to content that may impair the physical, mental or moral 
development of minors should take appropriate measures and provide tools that enable 
conditional access to the content. They may also include corrective measures, such as 
discontinuing advertising revenue for specific content, or other actions, such as improving 
the visibility of authoritative information sources. Providers of vVery large online 
platforms and of very large online search engines may reinforce their internal processes or 
supervision of any of their activities, in particular as regards the detection of systemic risks. 
They may also initiate or increase cooperation with trusted flaggers, organise training 
sessions and exchanges with trusted flagger organisations, and cooperate with other service 
providers, including by initiating or joining existing codes of conduct or other self-
regulatory measures. In selecting the appropriate mitigation measures, providers can 
consider, where appropriate, industry best practices, including as established through 
self regulatory cooperation, codes of conduct, as well as guidelines from the 
Commission. Any measures adopted should respect the due diligence requirements of this 
Regulation and be effective and appropriate for mitigating the specific risks identified, in the 
interest of safeguarding public order, protecting privacy and fighting fraudulent and 
deceptive commercial practices, and should be proportionate in light of the very large online 
platform’s economic capacity of the provider of the very large online platform or of very 
large online search engines and the need to avoid unnecessary restrictions on the use of 
their service, taking due account of potential negative effects on the fundamental rights of 
the recipients of the service. 
 
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(59)  Providers of vVery large online platforms and of very large online search engines should, 
where appropriate, conduct their risk assessments and design their risk mitigation measures 
with the involvement of representatives of the recipients of the service, representatives of 
groups potentially impacted by their services, independent experts and civil society 
organisations. In the assessment on whether a measure is reasonable, proportionate and 
effective, special consideration should be given to the right to freedom of expression. 
(60)  Given the need to ensure verification by independent experts, providers of very large online 
platforms and of very large online search engines should be accountable, through 
independent auditing, for their compliance with the obligations laid down by this Regulation 
and, where relevant, any complementary commitments undertaking pursuant to codes of 
conduct and crises protocols. They should give the auditor access to all relevant data 
necessary to perform the audit properly, including, where appropriate, to data related to 
algorithmic systems. Auditors should also be able to make use of other sources of objective 
information, including studies by vetted researchers. Audits should be performed 
according to best industry practices, with due regard, as appropriate, to auditing 
standards and guidelines. Auditors should guarantee the confidentiality, security and 
integrity of the information, such as trade secrets, that they obtain when performing their 
tasks and have the necessary expertise in the area of risk management and technical 
competence to audit algorithms. Auditors should be independent, so as to be able to perform 
their tasks in an adequate and trustworthy manner. If their independence and technical 
competence is not beyond doubt, they should resign or abstain from the audit engagement. 
 
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(61)  The audit report should be substantiated, so as to give a meaningful account of the activities 
undertaken and the conclusions reached. It should help inform, and where appropriate 
suggest improvements to the measures taken by the providers of the very large online 
platform and of the very large online search engine to comply with their obligations under 
this Regulation. The report should be transmitted to the Digital Services Coordinator of 
establishment and the Board without delaywithin 30 days following the adoption of the 
audit implementing report, together with the risk assessment and the mitigation measures, 
as well as the platform or search engine provider’s plans for addressing the audit’s 
recommendations. The report should include an audit opinion based on the conclusions 
drawn from the audit evidence obtained. A positive opinion should be given where all 
evidence shows that the very large online platform or the very large online search engine 
complies with the obligations laid down by this Regulation or, where applicable, any 
commitments it has undertaken pursuant to a code of conduct or crisis protocol, in particular 
by identifying, evaluating and mitigating the systemic risks posed by its system and services. 
A positive opinion should be accompanied by comments where the auditor wishes to include 
remarks that do not have a substantial effect on the outcome of the audit. A negative opinion 
should be given where the auditor considers that the very large online platform or the very 
large online search engine does not comply with this Regulation or the commitments 
undertaken. 
 
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(62)  A core part of a very large online platform’s and a very large online search engine's 
business is the manner in which information is prioritised and presented on its online 
interface to facilitate and optimise access to information for the recipients of the service. 
This is done, for example, by algorithmically suggesting, ranking and prioritising 
information, distinguishing through text or other visual representations, or otherwise 
curating information provided by recipients. Such recommender systems can have a 
significant impact on the ability of recipients to retrieve and interact with information 
online. They also play an important role in the amplification of certain messages, the viral 
dissemination of information and the stimulation of online behaviour. The obligations on 
assessment and mitigation of risks should trigger, on a case-by-case basis, the need for 
very large online platforms and very large online search engines to assess and adjust 
the design of their recommender systems, for example by taking measures to prevent 
or minimise biases that lead to the discrimination of vulnerable groups, in particular 
where information is personalised on the basis of special categories of personal data, 
within the meaning of Article 9 of the Regulation (EU) 2016/679. In addition, 
Consequently, in addition to obligations on assessment and mitigation of risks, 
providers of very large online platforms and very large online search engines should 
consistently ensure that recipients are appropriately informed, and can influence the 
information presented to them. They should clearly present the main parameters for such 
recommender systems in an easily comprehensible manner to ensure that the recipients 
understand how information is prioritised for them. They should also ensure that the 
recipients enjoy alternative options for the main parameters, including options that are not 
based on profiling of the recipient. 
 
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(63)  Advertising systems used by very large online platforms and very large online search 
engines pose particular risks and require further public and regulatory supervision on 
account of their scale and ability to target and reach recipients of the service based on their 
behaviour within and outside that platform’s or search engine's online interface. Providers 
of vVery large online platforms and of very large online search engines should ensure 
public access to repositories of advertisements displayed presented on their online 
interfaces to facilitate supervision and research into emerging risks brought about by the 
distribution of advertising online, for example in relation to illegal advertisements or 
manipulative techniques and disinformation with a real and foreseeable negative impact on 
public health, public security, civicl discourse, political participation, and equality. 
Repositories should include the content of advertisements and related data on the advertiser 
and the delivery of the advertisement, in particular where targeted advertising is concerned. 
This information should include both information about targeting criteria and delivery 
criteria, in particular when advertisements are delivered to children or vulnerable 
groups. 
 
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(64)  In order to appropriately supervise monitor and assess the compliance of very large online 
platforms and very large online search engines with the obligations laid down by this 
Regulation, the Digital Services Coordinator of establishment or the Commission may 
require access to or reporting of specific data. Such a requirement may include, for example, 
the data necessary to assess the risks and possible harms brought about by the platform’s or 
search engine's systems, data on the accuracy, functioning and testing of algorithmic 
systems for content moderation, recommender systems or advertising systems, including, 
where appropriate training data and algorithms, or data on processes and outputs of 
content moderation or of internal complaint-handling systems within the meaning of this 
Regulation. Such data access requests do not include requests to produce specific 
information about individual recipients of the service for the purpose of determining 
compliance of the recipients with other applicable Union or national law. Investigations 
by researchers on the evolution and severity of online systemic risks are particularly 
important for bridging information asymmetries and establishing a resilient system of risk 
mitigation, informing online platforms, online search engines, Digital Services 
Coordinators, other competent authorities, the Commission and the public. This Regulation 
therefore provides a framework for compelling access to data from very large online 
platforms and very large online search engines to vetted researchers vetted by the Digital 
Services Coordinator of establishment of a very large online platform provider, or the 
Commission. All requirements requests for access to data under that framework should be 
proportionate and appropriately protect the rights and legitimate interests, including trade 
secrets and other confidential information, of the platform or the search engine and any 
other parties concerned, including the recipients of the service. 
 
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(65)  Given the complexity of the functioning of the systems deployed and the systemic risks they 
present to society, providers of very large online platforms and of very large online search 
engines should appoint establish a compliance officersfunction, which should be 
independent from the operational functions of the providers. The head of the 
compliance function should report directly to the management of the provider, 
including for concerns of non-compliance with this Regulation. The compliance officers 
that are part of the compliance function should have the necessary qualifications
knowledge, experience and ability to operationalise measures and monitor the compliance 
with this Regulation within the platform or search engine provider’s organisation. 
Providers of vVery large online platforms and of very large online search engines should 
ensure that the compliance officer function is involved, properly and in a timely manner, in 
all issues which relate to this Regulation including in the risk assessment and mitigation 
strategy and specific measures, as well as assessing compliance, where applicable, with 
commitments made by the provider of very large online platform or of very large 
online search engine provider under the codes of conduct they subscribe to. 
(65a)  In view of the additional risks relating to their activities and their additional obligations 
under this Regulation, the other transparency requirements set out in this Regulation should 
be complemented by additional transparency requirements applicable should apply 
specifically to very large online platforms and very large online search engines, notably to 
report comprehensively on the risk assessments performed and subsequent measures 
adopted as provided by this Regulation. 
 
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(66)  To facilitate the effective and consistent application of the obligations in this Regulation that 
may require implementation through technological means, it is important to promote 
voluntary industry standards covering certain technical procedures, where the industry can 
help develop standardised means to support providers of intermediary services in 
complying y with this Regulation, such as allowing the submission of notices, including 
through application programming interfaces, or standards relating to audits, or about the 
interoperability of advertisement repositories. Providers of intermediary services are free 
to adopt the standards, but their adoption does not presume compliance with this 
Regulation. At the same time, by providing best practices, sSuch standards could in 
particular be useful for relatively small providers of intermediary services. The standards 
could distinguish between different types of illegal content or different types of intermediary 
services, as appropriate. 
(67)  The Commission and the Board should encourage the drawing-up of codes of conduct to 
contribute to the application of this Regulation. While the implementation of codes of 
conduct should be measurable and subject to public oversight, this should not impair the 
voluntary nature of such codes and the freedom of interested parties to decide whether to 
participate. In certain circumstances, it is important that providers of very large online 
platforms and of very large online search engines cooperate in the drawing-up and adhere 
to specific codes of conduct. Nothing in this Regulation prevents other service providers 
from adhering to the same standards of due diligence, adopting best practices and benefitting 
from the guidance provided by the Commission and the Board, by participating in the same 
codes of conduct. 
 
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(68)  It is appropriate that this Regulation identify certain areas of consideration for such codes of 
conduct. In particular, risk mitigation measures concerning specific types of illegal content 
should be explored via self- and co-regulatory agreements. Another area for consideration is 
the possible negative impacts of systemic risks on society and democracy, such as 
disinformation or manipulative and abusive activities or any adverse effects on minors
This includes coordinated operations aimed at amplifying information, including 
disinformation, such as the use of bots or fake accounts for the creation of fake inaccurate 
or misleading information, sometimes with a purpose of obtaining economic gain, which are 
particularly harmful for vulnerable recipients of the service, such as children. In relation to 
such areas, adherence to and compliance with a given code of conduct by a very large online 
platform or a very large online search engine may be considered as an appropriate risk 
mitigating measure. The refusal without proper explanations by a provider of an online 
platform or of an online search engine of the Commission’s invitation to participate in the 
application of such a code of conduct could be taken into account, where relevant, when 
determining whether the online platform or the online search engine has infringed the 
obligations laid down by this Regulation. 
(69)  The rules on codes of conduct under this Regulation could serve as a basis for already 
established self-regulatory efforts at Union level, including the Product Safety Pledge, the 
Memorandum of Understanding against counterfeit goods, the Code of Conduct against 
illegal hate speech as well as the Code of practice on disinformation. In particular for the 
latter, the Commission will issue guidance for strengthening the Code of practice on 
disinformation as announced in the European Democracy Action Plan. 
 
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(70)  The provision of online advertising generally involves several actors, including intermediary 
services that connect publishers of advertising with advertisers. Codes of conducts should 
support and complement the transparency obligations relating to advertisement for online 
platforms, and very large online platforms and very large online search engines set out in 
this Regulation in order to provide for flexible and effective mechanisms to facilitate and 
enhance the compliance with those obligations, notably as concerns the modalities of the 
transmission of the relevant information. The involvement of a wide range of stakeholders 
should ensure that those codes of conduct are widely supported, technically sound, effective 
and offer the highest levels of user-friendliness to ensure that the transparency obligations 
achieve their objectives. 
(71)  In case of extraordinary circumstances affecting public security or public health, the 
Commission may initiate the drawing up of crisis protocols to coordinate a rapid, collective 
and cross-border response in the online environment. Extraordinary circumstances may 
entail any unforeseeable event, such as earthquakes, hurricanes, pandemics and other serious 
cross-border threats to public health, war and acts of terrorism, where, for example, online 
platforms may be misused for the rapid spread of illegal content or disinformation or where 
the need arises for rapid dissemination of reliable information. In light of the important role 
of very large online platforms in disseminating information in our societies and across 
borders, such platform providers should be encouraged in drawing up and applying specific 
crisis protocols. Such crisis protocols should be activated only for a limited period of time 
and the measures adopted should also be limited to what is strictly necessary to address the 
extraordinary circumstance. Those measures should be consistent with this Regulation, and 
should not amount to a general obligation for the participating providers of very large 
online platforms and of very large online search engines to monitor the information which 
they transmit or store, nor actively to seek facts or circumstances indicating illegal content. 
 
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(72)  The task of ensuring adequate oversight and enforcement of the obligations laid down in this 
Regulation should in principle be attributed to the Member States. To this end, they should 
appoint at least one authority with the task to apply and enforce this Regulation, without 
prejudice to the possibility to appoint an existing authority. Member States should 
however be able to entrust more than one competent authority, with specific supervisory or 
enforcement tasks and competences concerning the application of this Regulation, for 
example for specific sectors, such as electronic communications’ regulators, media 
regulators or consumer protection authorities, reflecting their domestic constitutional, 
organisational and administrative structure, where also existing authorities may be 
empowered with these tasks. In the exercise of their tasks all appointed competent 
authorities should contribute to the achievement of the objectives of this Regulation, 
namely to the proper functioning of the internal market for intermediary services 
where the harmonised rules for a safe, predictable and trusted online environment laid 
down in this Regulation, and in particular the due diligence obligations applicable to 
different categories of providers of intermediary services, are effectively supervised 
and enforced, with a view to ensure that fundamental rights, as enshrined in the 
Charter, are effectively protected. On the other hand, this regulation does not require 
Member States to confer to competent authorities the task to adjudicate on the 
lawfulness of individual pieces of content. 
 
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(73)  Given the cross-border nature of the services at stake and the horizontal range of obligations 
introduced by this Regulation, the one authority appointed with the task of supervising the 
application and, where necessary, enforcing this Regulation should be identified as a Digital 
Services Coordinator in each Member State. Where more than one competent authority is 
appointed to apply and enforce this Regulation, only one authority in that Member State 
should be identified as a Digital Services Coordinator. The Digital Services Coordinator 
should act as the single contact point with regard to all matters related to the application of 
this Regulation for the Commission, the Board, the Digital Services Coordinators of other 
Member States, as well as for other competent authorities of the Member State in question. 
In particular, where several competent authorities are entrusted with tasks under this 
Regulation in a given Member State, the Digital Services Coordinator should coordinate and 
cooperate with those authorities in accordance with the national law setting their respective 
tasks and without prejudice to the independent assessment of the other competent 
authorities. While not entailing any hierarchical supraordination over other competent 
authorities in the exercise of their tasks, the Digital Services Coordinator, and should 
ensure effective involvement of all relevant competent authorities and should timely 
report their assessment in the context of cooperation on supervision and enforcement at 
Union level. Moreover, in addition to the specific mechanisms provided for in this 
Regulation as regards cooperation at European level, Member State should also ensure 
cooperation among the Digital Services Coordinator and other designated competent 
authorities at national level, where applicable, thorughthrough appropriate tools, such 
as by pooling of resources, joint task forces, joint investigations and mutual assistance 
mechanisms. 
 
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(74)  The Digital Services Coordinator, as well as other competent authorities designated under 
this Regulation, play a crucial role in ensuring the effectiveness of the rights and obligations 
laid down in this Regulation and the achievement of its objectives. Accordingly, it is 
necessary to ensure that those authorities have the necessary means to supervise all the 
providers of intermediary services under their jurisdiction, in the interstinterest of all 
Union citizens. Given the variety of providers of intermediary services and their use of 
advanced technology in providing their services, it is also essential that the Digital 
Services Coordinator and the relevant competent authorities are equipped with the 
necessary number of staff and experts with specialised skills, advanced technical 
means, and financial resources to carry out their tasks. Furthermore, the level of 
resources should take into account the size, complexity and potential societal impact of 
the providers under their jurisdiction, as well as the reach of their services across the 
Union. Those authorities should also act in complete independence from private and 
public bodies, without the obligation or possibility to seek or receive instructions, including 
from the government, and without prejudice to the specific duties to cooperate with other 
competent authorities, the Digital Services Coordinators, the Board and the Commission. On 
the other hand, the independence of these authorities should not mean that they cannot be 
subject, in accordance with national constitutions and without endangering the achievement 
of the objectives of this Regulation, to national control or monitoring proportionate 
accountability mechanisms regarding the general activities of the Digital Services 
Coordinators, such as their financial expenditure or to judicial review, or that they should 
not have the possibility to consult reporting to the national parliaments. It should also 
not prevent the exercise of judicial review, or the possibility to consult or regularly 
exchange views with other national authorities, including law enforcement authorities or 
crisis management authorities, where appropriate. 
 
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(75)  Member States can designate an existing national authority with the function of the Digital 
Services Coordinator, or with specific tasks to apply and enforce this Regulation, provided 
that any such appointed authority complies with the requirements laid down in this 
Regulation, such as in relation to its independence. Moreover, Member States are in 
principle not precluded from merging functions within an existing authority, in accordance 
with Union law. The measures to that effect may include, inter alia, the preclusion to dismiss 
the President or a board member of a collegiate body of an existing authority before the 
expiry of their terms of office, on the sole ground that an institutional reform has taken place 
involving the merger of different functions within one authority, in the absence of any rules 
guaranteeing that such dismissals do not jeopardise the independence and impartiality of 
such members. 
 
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(76)  In the absence of a general requirement for providers of intermediary services to ensure a 
physical presence within the territory of one of the Member States, there is a need to ensure 
clarity under which Member State's jurisdiction those providers fall for the purposes of 
applying and enforcing the obligations set out in this Regulation rules laid down in 
Chapters III and IV by the national competent authorities, including judicial remedies 
against their decisions, in accordance with Chapter IV of this RegulationThis 
jurisdiction is therefore without prejudice to private international law rules concerning 
conflict of jurisdiction and laws applicable to court proceedings based on this 
Regulation and brought by natural persons or legal persons other than national 
competent authorities, such as proceedings brought by consumers in the courts of the 
Member State where they are domiciled in accordance with Union law in the field of 
judicial cooperation in civil matters. It is also without prejudice to the rules of 
international private law concerning civil law claims based on this Regulation or any 
other jurisdictional rules applicable to obligations applicable to on providers of 
intermediary services providers pursuant to other Union law or national law in 
compliance with Union law, such as the jurisdiction for the application and 
enforcement of consumer protection law or the jurisdiction for disputes on individual 
pieces of content. It also applies only to the obligations placed by this Regulation upon 
intermediary services to inform the issuing authority of the effect given to the orders to 
act against illegal content and orders to provide information adopted in accordance 
with this Regulation, but not to the order itself. A provider should be under the 
jurisdiction of the Member State where its main establishment is located, that is, where the 
provider has its head office or registered office within which the principal financial 
functions and operational control are exercised. In respect of providers that do not have an 
establishment in the Union but that offer services in the Union and therefore fall within the 
scope of this Regulation, the Member State where those providers appointed their legal 
representative should have jurisdiction, considering the function of legal representatives 
under this Regulation. In the interest of the effective application of this Regulation, all 
Member States should, however, have jurisdiction in respect of providers that failed to 
designate a legal representative, provided that the provider is not subject to enforcement 
proceedings for the same facts by another Member State the principle of ne bis in idem 
is respected. To that aim, each Member State that exercises jurisdiction in respect of such 
providers should, without undue delay, inform all other Member States of the measures they 
 
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have taken in the exercise of that jurisdiction through the common information sharing 
system to be used for all communications among authorities pursuant to this 
Regulation. In such cases, priority should be given to the earliest among those 
procedingsproceedings and all existing proceedings in other Member States concerning 
the same facts and effects should be suspended. 
(77)  Member States should provide the Digital Services Coordinator, and any other competent 
authority designated under this Regulation, with sufficient powers and means to ensure 
effective investigation and enforcement. This includes the power of competent authorities 
to adopt interim measures in accordance with national law in case of risk of serious 
harm. Such interim measures, which may include orders to terminate or remedy a 
given alleged infringement, should not go beyond what is necessary to ensure that 
serious harm is prevented pending the final decision. Digital Services Coordinators 
should in particular be able to search for and obtain information which is located in its 
territory, including in the context of joint investigations, with due regard to the fact that 
oversight and enforcement measures concerning a provider under the jurisdiction of another 
Member State should be adopted by the Digital Services Coordinator of that other Member 
State, where relevant in accordance with the procedures relating to cross-border cooperation. 
(78)  Member States should set out in their national law, in accordance with Union law and in 
particular this Regulation and the Charter, the detailed conditions and limits for the exercise 
of the investigatory and enforcement powers of their Digital Services Coordinators, and 
other competent authorities where relevant, under this Regulation. 
 
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(79)  In the course of the exercise of those powers, the competent authorities should comply with 
the applicable national rules regarding procedures and matters such as the need for a prior 
judicial authorisation to enter certain premises and legal professional privilege. Those 
provisions should in particular ensure respect for the fundamental rights to an effective 
remedy and to a fair trial, including the rights of defence, and, the right to respect for private 
life. In this regard, the guarantees provided for in relation to the proceedings of the 
Commission pursuant to this Regulation could serve as an appropriate point of reference. A 
prior, fair and impartial procedure should be guaranteed before taking any final decision, 
including the right to be heard of the persons concerned, and the right to have access to the 
file, while respecting confidentiality and professional and business secrecy, as well as the 
obligation to give meaningful reasons for the decisions. This should not preclude the taking 
of measures, however, in duly substantiated cases of urgency and subject to appropriate 
conditions and procedural arrangements. The exercise of powers should also be 
proportionate to, inter alia the nature and the overall actual or potential harm caused by the 
infringement or suspected infringement. The competent authorities should in principle take 
all relevant facts and circumstances of the case into account, including information gathered 
by competent authorities in other Member States. 
(80)  Member States should ensure that violations of the obligations laid down in this Regulation 
can be sanctioned in a manner that is effective, proportionate and dissuasive, taking into 
account the nature, gravity, recurrence and duration of the violation, in view of the public 
interest pursued, the scope and kind of activities carried out, as well as the economic 
capacity of the infringer. In particular, penalties should take into account whether the 
provider of intermediary services concerned systematically or recurrently fails to comply 
with its obligations stemming from this Regulation, as well as, where relevant, whether the 
provider is active in several Member States. Where this Regulation provides for a 
maximum amount of fines or of a periodic penalty payment, this maximum amount 
should apply per infringement of this Regulation. When deciding the amount of such 
penalties within those limits, the Digital Services Coordinator or, where applicable, any 
other competent authority should ensure that those penalties are effective, 
proportionate and dissuasive, taking into account all the above-mentioned criteria. 
 
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(81)  In order to ensure effective enforcement of this Regulation, individuals or representative 
organisations should be able to lodge any complaint related to compliance with this 
Regulation with the Digital Services Coordinator in the territory where they received the 
service, without prejudice to this Regulation’s rules on jurisdiction and to the applicable 
rules on handling of complaints in accordance with national principles of good 
administration. Complaints cshould provide a faithful overview of concerns related to a 
particular intermediary service provider’s compliance and could also inform the Digital 
Services Coordinator of any more cross-cutting issues. The Digital Services Coordinator 
should involve other national competent authorities as well as the Digital Services 
Coordinator of another Member State, and in particular the one of the Member State where 
the provider of intermediary services concerned is established, if the issue requires cross-
border cooperation. 
(82)  Member States should ensure that Digital Services Coordinators can take measures that are 
effective in addressing and proportionate to certain particularly serious and persistent 
infringements of this Regulation. Especially where those measures can affect the rights and 
interests of third parties, as may be the case in particular where the access to online 
interfaces is restricted, it is appropriate to require that the measures be ordered by a 
competent judicial authority at the Digital Service Coordinators’ request and are subject to 
additional safeguards. In particular, third parties potentially affected should be afforded the 
opportunity to be heard and such orders should only be issued when powers to take such 
measures as provided by other acts of Union law or by national law, for instance to protect 
collective interests of consumers, to ensure the prompt removal of web pages containing or 
disseminating child pornography, or to disable access to services are being used by a third 
party to infringe an intellectual property right, are not reasonably available. 
 
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(83)  Such an order to restrict access should not go beyond what is necessary to achieve its 
objective. For that purpose, it should be temporary and be addressed in principle to a 
provider of intermediary services, such as the relevant hosting service provider, internet 
service provider or domain registry or registrar, which is in a reasonable position to achieve 
that objective without unduly restricting access to lawful information. 
(84)  The Digital Services Coordinator should regularly publish, for example on its website, a 
report on the activities carried out under this Regulation. Given that the Digital Services 
Coordinator is also made aware of orders to take action against illegal content or to provide 
information regulated by this Regulation through the common information sharing system, 
the Digital Services Coordinator should include in its annual report the number and 
categories of these orders addressed to providers of intermediary services issued by judicial 
and administrative authorities in its Member State. 
 
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(84a)  Given the cross-border and cross-sectoral relevance of intermediary services, a high 
level of cooperation is necessary to ensure the consistent application of this Regulation 
and the availability of relevant information for the exercise of enforcement tasks 
through the common information sharing system. Cooperation may take different 
forms depending on the issues at stake, without prejudice to specific joint investigation 
exercises. It is in any case necessary that the Digital Services Coordinator of 
establishment of a provider of intermediary services informs other Digital Services 
Coordinators about issues, investigations and actions which are going to be taken vis à 
vis such a provider. Moreover, when a competent authority in a Member State holds 
relevant information for an investigation carried out by the competent authorities in 
the Member State of establishment, or is able to gather such information located in its 
territory to which the competent authorities in the Member State of establishment do 
not have access, the Digital Services Coordinator of destination should assist the Digital 
Services Coordinator of establishment in a timely manner, including through the 
exercise of its investigatory powers in accordance with the applicable national 
procedures. The addressee of such investigatory measures should comply with them 
and be liable in case of failure to comply, and the competent authorities in the Member 
State of establishment should be able to rely on the information gathered through 
mutual assistance, in order to ensure compliance with this Regulation. Moreover, 
where a potential infringement by a provider of a very large online platform or of a 
very large online search engine could seriously affect public security, public order or 
public health in the territory of a Member State, the Digital Services Coordinator of 
that Member State should be able to timely obtain the relevant information held by the 
competent authorities in the Member State of establishment, upon the request by that 
Digital Services Coordinator justifying the existence of such specific circumstances. 
That information could be used to monitor and eventually support further 
investigatory and enforcement action by the competent authorities in the Member 
State of establishment, by the Board or by the Commission. 
 
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(85)  Where aThe Digital Services Coordinator of destination, in particular on the basis of 
complaints received or of the input of other national competent authorities where 
appropriate, or the Board in case of issues involving more than three Member States, 
should be able to requestask s another the Digital Services Coordinator of establishment 
to take investigatory or enforcement actions with regard to a provider under its 
jurisdiction, including with regard to alleged infringements of one of the provisions of 
this Regulation that solely apply to the providers of very large online platforms and the 
providers of very large online search engines. The Digital Services Coordinator of 
establishment should be able to rely on mutual assistance or invite the requesting 
Digital Services Coordinator to a joint investigation in case further information is 
needed to take a decision., tThe requesting Digital Services Coordinator, or the Board in 
case it issued a recommendation to assess issues involving more than three Member States, 
should be able to refer the matter to the Commission in case of any disagreement as to the 
assessments or the measures taken or proposed or a failure to adopt any measures in 
accordance with this RegulationWhere tThe Commission, on the basis of the 
information made available by the concerned authorities, considers that the proposed 
measures, including the proposed level of fines, cannot ensure tehthe effective 
enforcement of the and its assessment of the applicable obligations laid down in this 
Regulationit should accordingly be able to express its serious doubts and request the 
competent Digital Services Coordinator to re-assess the matter and take the necessary 
measures to ensure compliance with this Regulation within a defined time period. This 
possibility is without prejudice to the Commission’s general duty to oversee the application 
of, and where necessary enforce, Union law under the control of the Court of Justice of the 
European Union in accordance with the Treaties. A failure by the Digital Services 
Coordinator of establishment to take any the necessary measures pursuant to such a request 
may also lead to the Commission’s intervention under Section 3 of Chapter IV of this 
Regulation, where the suspected infringer is a provider of very large online platform or a 
provider of very large online search engine
 
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(86)  In order to facilitate cross-border supervision and investigations of obligations laid down in 
this Regulation involving several Member States, the Digital Services Coordinators of 
establishment should be able, through the common information sharing system, to 
invite other Digital Services Coordinators, as well as other competent authorities 
where appropriate, to a joint investigation concerning an alleged infringement of to 
participate, on a permanent or temporary basis, in joint oversight and investigation activities 
concerning matters covered by this Regulation. Other Digital Services Coordinators, and 
other competent authorities where appropriate, should be able to join the investigation 
proposed by the Digital Services Coordinator of establishment, unless the latter 
considers that an excessive number of participating authorities may affect the 
effectiveness of the exercise taking into account the features of the alleged infringement 
and the lack of direct effects on the recipients in these Member States. Joint 
investigationThose activities may include the Digital Services Coordinators of 
establishment of the specific provider concerned, as well as other competent authorities 
and may cover a variety of actions to be coordinated by the Digital Services Coordinator 
of establishment in accordance with the availabilities of the participating authorities, 
such as issues, ranging from coordinated data gathering exercises, pooling of resources, 
task forces, coordinated to requests for information or common inspections of premises
All competent authorities participating to the joint investigation should accordingly be 
able to exercise their investigatory powers within their territory, in accordance with 
the applicable national procedures. The joint investigation should be concluded within 
a given timeframe with a final report taking into account the contribution of all 
participating competent authorities. On the basis of this final report, the Digital 
Services Coordinator of establishment should communicate the preliminary position 
on the infringement, including the measures it intends to adopt or, where applicable, 
those that other competent authorities in that Member State intend to adopt. Other 
Digital Services Coordinators may request the Commission to assess such issue where, 
on the basis of the final report and information gathered during the joint investigation, 
they disagree with such preliminary position or where no preliminary position is 
communicated within a given timeline. Also the Board, where this is requested by at least 
three Digital Services Coordinator of destination, may recommend to a Digital Services 
Coordinator of establishment to launch such joint investigation and give indications on its 
organisation. In such a case, the Board may refer the matter to the Commission also where 
 
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the Digital Services Coordinator of establishment refuses to launch the investigation and the 
Board does not agree with the justification given. Finally, upon recommendation of the 
Board, the Commission may also directly set-up by decision a joint investigation concerning 
a provider of a very large online platform or of a very large search engine, which shall 
involve the Digital Services Coordinator of establishment and any other Digital Services 
Coordinator that triggered the Board’s recommendation, including the competent authorities 
in these Member States that also gave their availability. The Digital Services Coordinator of 
establishment should accordingly coordinate the exercise in accordance with the indications 
provided by the Commission. Where, upon completion of the joint investigation, no 
preliminary position is issued or the Commission considers the measures envisaged therein, 
including the proposed level of fines, not in line with this Regulation or insufficient to 
ensure its effective enforcement, the Commission should be able to raise its serious doubts 
and request the Digital Services Coordinator of establishment to take appropriate action. , 
within the limits and scope of powers available to each participating authority. The Board 
may be requested to provide advice in relation to those activities, for example by proposing 
roadmaps and timelines for activities or proposing ad hoc task forces with participation of 
the authorities involved. 
 
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(87)  In view of the particular challenges that may emerge in relation to assessing and ensuring a 
very large online platform’s or very large online search engine’s compliance, for instance 
relating to the scale or complexity of a suspected infringement or the need for particular 
expertise or capabilities at Union level, the Digital Services Coordinator of establishment
should have the possibility to request, on a voluntary basis, the Commission to intervene and 
exercise its investigatory and enforcement powers under this Regulation. Moreover, also 
the Board, upon request of at least three Digital Services Coordinators, could ask that 
the Commission exercises its investigatory and enforcement powers under this 
Regulation, where an alleged infringement of this Regulation by a provider of a very 
large online platform or of a very large online search engine could cause serious harm, 
justifying the direct involvement of the Commission. The Commission should take into 
account the seriousness and complexity of the alleged infringement when deciding 
whether and when initiating the proceedings. 
(88)  In order to ensure a consistent application of this Regulation, it is necessary to set up an 
independent advisory group at Union level, which should support the Commission and help 
coordinate the actions of Digital Services Coordinators. That European Board for Digital 
Services should consist of the Digital Services Coordinators, without prejudice to the 
possibility for Digital Services Coordinators to invite in its meetings or appoint ad hoc 
delegates from other competent authorities entrusted with specific tasks under this 
Regulation, where that is required pursuant to their national allocation of tasks and 
competences. In case of multiple participants from one Member State, the voting right 
should remain limited to one representative per Member State. 
(89)  The Board should contribute to achieving a common Union perspective on the consistent 
application of this Regulation and to cooperation among competent authorities, including by 
advising the Commission and the Digital Services Coordinators about appropriate 
investigation and enforcement measures, in particular vis à vis the providers of very large 
online platforms or very large online search engines. The Board should also contribute to 
the drafting of relevant templates and codes of conduct and analyse emerging general trends 
in the development of digital services in the Union. 
 
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(90)  For that purpose, the Board should be able to adopt opinions, requests and recommendations 
addressed to Digital Services Coordinators or other competent national authorities. While 
not legally binding, the decision to deviate therefrom should be properly explained and 
could be taken into account by the Commission in assessing the compliance of the Member 
State concerned with this Regulation. 
(91)  The Board should bring together the representatives of the Digital Services Coordinators and 
possible other competent authorities under the chairmanship of the Commission, with a view 
to ensuring an assessment of matters submitted to it in a fully European dimension. In view 
of possible cross-cutting elements that may be of relevance for other regulatory frameworks 
at Union level, the Board should be allowed to cooperate with other Union bodies, offices, 
agencies and advisory groups with responsibilities in fields such as equality, including 
gender equality between women and men, and non-discrimination, data protection, 
electronic communications, audiovisual services, detection and investigation of frauds 
against the EU budget as regards custom duties, or consumer protection, or competition 
law, as necessary for the performance of its tasks. 
(92)  The Commission, through the Chair, should participate in the Board without voting rights. 
Through the Chair, the Commission should ensure that the agenda of the meetings is set in 
accordance with the requests of the members of the Board as laid down in the rules of 
procedure and in compliance with the duties of the Board laid down in this Regulation. 
(93)  In view of the need to ensure support for the Board’s activities, the Board should be able to 
rely on the expertise and human resources of the Commission and of the competent national 
authorities. The specific operational arrangements for the internal functioning of the Board 
should be further specified in the rules of procedure of the Board. 
(94)  Given the importance of very large online platforms or very large online search engines, in 
view of their reach and impact, their failure to comply with the specific obligations 
applicable to them may affect a substantial number of recipients of the services across 
different Member States and may cause large societal harms, while such failures may also be 
particularly complex to identify and address. 
 
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(95)  In order to address those public policy concerns it is therefore necessary to provide for a 
common system of enhanced supervision and enforcement at Union level. Once an 
infringement of one of the provisions of this Regulation that solely apply to very large 
online platforms or very large online search engines has been identifiedascertained and, 
where necessary, sanctioned, for instance pursuant following to individual or joint 
investigations, audits’ reports,ing or complaints, cross-border cooperation requests, as 
well as pursuant to a direct recommendation of the Commission or of the Board to 
investigate the matter, the Digital Services Coordinator of establishment, upon its own 
initiative or upon the Board’s advice, should also request the provider of such platform or 
such search engine to draw a detailed action plan to remedy any effect of the 
infringement. Where, following a recommendation of the Commission, the Digital 
Services Coordinator of establishment does not take a decision on the alleged 
infringement, the Commission may be able to initiate proceedings to ascertain and, 
where necessary, impose penalties. In this case the Commission should also request the 
concerned provider of a very large online platform or of a very large online search 
engine to draw up a detailed action plan. It should also monitor any subsequent measure 
taken by the provider of very large online platform concerned as set out in its action plan. 
That The Digital Services Coordinator of establishment should be able to ask, where 
appropriate, for an additional, specific audit to be carried out, on a voluntary basis, to 
establish whether thethose measures included in the action plan are sufficient to address 
the infringement, taking also into account whether adherence to relevant code of 
conduct is included among the measures proposedThe Digital Services Coordinator of 
establishment should also monitor any subsequent measure taken by the provider of a 
very large online platform or of a very large online search engine concerned as set out 
in its action plan, taking into account also an independent audit carried out by the 
provider. At the end of that procedure, it should inform the Board, the Commission and the 
platform provider concerned of its views on whether or not that platform provider 
addressed the infringement, specifying in particular the relevant conduct and its assessment 
of any measures taken. The Digital Services Coordinator should perform its role under this 
common system in a timely manner, involving other competent authorities where 
appropriate, and taking utmost account of any opinions and other advice of the Board and 
of the Commission, when deciding and providing justification for any course of action 
in the context of the enhanced supervision
 
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(96)  Where the infringement of the provision that solely applies to very large online platforms or 
very large online search engines is not effectively addressed by their provider of such 
that platform pursuant to the action plan, only , or where the Digital Services Coordinator 
of establishment has not investigated such alleged infringement in spite of a 
recommendation of the the Commission, the latter may, on its own initiative or upon 
advice recommendation of the Board, decide to take over and further investigate the 
alleged infringement concerned, or, where the infringement was ascertained by the 
Digital Services Coordinator of establishment, and the measures that the platform 
provider has subsequently taken, by taking over from to the exclusion of the Digital 
Services Coordinator of establishment the adoption of the additional measures necessary 
to ensure compliance. After having conducted the necessary investigations, the 
Commission should be able to issue decisions finding an infringement, or a persisting 
continuing infringement, and imposing sanctions in respect of providers of a very large 
online platforms or very large online search engine where that is justified. It should also 
have such a possibility to intervene in cross-border situations where the Digital Services 
Coordinator of establishment did not take the necessaryany measures despite the 
Commission’s request, or in situations where the Digital Services Coordinator of 
establishment itself or the Board requested for the Commission to intervene, in respect of 
an infringement of any other provision of this Regulation committed concerning by a very 
large online platform or a very large online search engine
 
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(97)  In order to effectively perform its tasks, Tthe Commission should maintain a margin of 
discretion as to the decision remain free to decide whether or not it wishes to intervene in 
any of the situations where it is empowered to do so under this Regulation. Once the 
Commission initiated the proceedings, the Digital Services Coordinators of establishment 
concerned should be precluded from exercising their investigatory and enforcement powers 
in respect of the relevant conduct of the provider of the very large online platform or of 
very large online search engine concerned, so as to avoid duplication, inconsistencies and 
risks from the viewpoint of the principle of ne bis in idem. However, in the interest of 
effectiveness, those Digital Services Coordinators should not be precluded from exercising 
their powers either to assist the Commission, at its request in the performance of its 
supervisory tasks, or in respect of other conduct, including conduct by the same provider of 
the very large online platform or of the very large online search engine that is suspected 
to constitute a new infringement. Those Digital Services Coordinators, as well as the Board 
and other Digital Services Coordinators where relevant, should provide the Commission 
with all necessary information and assistance to allow it to perform its tasks effectively
including information gathered in the context of formal investigations as well as in the 
context of other data gathering or data access exercises. , whilst cConversely the 
Commission should keep them informed on the exercise of its powers as appropriate. In that 
regard, the Commission should, where appropriate, take account of any relevant assessments 
carried out by the Board or by the Digital Services Coordinators concerned, including fines 
already imposed, and of any relevant evidence and information gathered by them, without 
prejudice to the Commission’s powers and responsibility to carry out additional 
investigations as necessary. 
(98)  In view of both the particular challenges that may arise in seeking to ensure compliance by 
providers of very large online platforms or of very large online search engines and the 
importance of doing so effectively, considering their size and impact and the harms that they 
may cause, the Commission should have strong investigative and enforcement powers to 
allow it to investigate, enforce and monitor certain of the rules laid down in this Regulation, 
in full respect of the fundamental right to be heard and to have access to the file in the 
context of enforcement proceedings, the principle of proportionality and the rights and 
interests of the affected parties. 
 
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(99)  The Commission should be able to request information necessary for the purpose of 
this Regulation, throughout the Union. In particular, the Commission should have access 
to any relevant documents, data and information necessary to open and conduct 
investigations and to monitor the compliance with the relevant obligations laid down in this 
Regulation, irrespective of who possesses the documents, data or information in question, 
and regardless of their form or format, their storage medium, or the precise place where they 
are stored. The Commission should be able to directly require by means of a request for 
information that the provider of the very large online platform or of the very large online 
search engine concerned as well as any other natural or legal persons acting for 
purposes related to their trade, business, craft or profession that may be reasonably 
aware of information relating to the suspected infringement or the infringement, as 
applicableor relevant third parties, or than individuals, provide any relevant evidence, data 
and information. In addition, the Commission should be able to request any relevant 
information from any public authority, body or agency within the Member State for the 
purpose of this Regulation, or from any natural person or legal person for the purpose of 
this Regulation. The Commission should be able empowered to require access to, and 
explanations by means of exercise of investigatory powers, such as requests for 
information or interviews, relating to documents, data, information, data-bases and 
algorithms of relevant persons, and to interview, with their consent, any natural or legal 
persons who may be in possession of useful information and to record the statements made 
by any technical means. The Commission should also be empowered to undertake such 
inspections as are necessary to enforce the relevant provisions of this Regulation. Those 
investigatory powers aim to complement the Commission’s possibility to ask Digital 
Services Coordinators and other Member States’ authorities for assistance, for instance by 
providing information or in the exercise of those powers. 
 
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(99-a)  The Commission should be able to take the necessary actions to monitor the effective 
implementation and compliance with the obligations laid down in this Regulation. Such 
actions should include the ability of the Commission to appoint independent external 
experts, such as auditors, to assist the Commission in this process, including, where 
applicable, from competent authorities of Member States, such as data or consumer 
protection authorities. When appointing the external experts, the Commission should 
ensure that these experts are exercising their role in an independent manner, ensuring 
also that they are free of any conflicts of interest. 
(99a)  Interim measures can be an important tool to ensure that, while an investigation is 
ongoing, the infringement being investigated does not lead to serious and irreparable 
damage for recipients of services of very large online platforms or of very large online 
search engines. This tool is important to avoid developments that could be very 
difficult to reverse by a decision taken by the Commission at the end of the 
proceedings. The Commission should therefore have the power to impose interim 
measures by decision in the context of proceedings opened in view of the possible 
adoption of a decision of non-compliance. This power should apply in cases where the 
Commission has made a prima facie finding of infringement of obligations concerning 
very large online platforms or of very large online search engines and where there is a 
risk of serious damage for recipients of the service. A decision imposing interim 
measures should only be valid for a specified period, either until the conclusion of the 
proceedings by the Commission, or for a fixed time period which can be renewed 
insofar as it is necessary and appropriate. 
 
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(100)  Compliance with the relevant obligations imposed under this Regulation should be 
enforceable by means of fines and periodic penalty payments. To that end, appropriate levels 
of fines and periodic penalty payments should also be laid down for non-compliance with 
the obligations and breach of the procedural rules, subject to appropriate limitation periods. 
The Court of Justice of the European Union should have unlimited jurisdiction in 
respect of fines and penalty payments. 
(101)  The provider of the very large online platforms or of very large online search engine 
concerned and other persons subject to the exercise of the Commission’s powers whose 
interests may be affected by a decision should be given the opportunity of submitting their 
observations beforehand, and the decisions taken should be widely publicised. While 
ensuring the rights of defence of the parties concerned, in particular, the right of access to 
the file, it is essential that confidential information be protected. Furthermore, while 
respecting the confidentiality of the information, the Commission should ensure that any 
information relied on for the purpose of its decision is disclosed to an extent that allows the 
addressee of the decision to understand the facts and considerations that lead up to the 
decision. 
(101a) The effective enforcement and monitoring of this Regulation requires a seamless and 
real-time exchange of information among the Digital Services Coordinators, the Board 
and the Commission, as well as access to these information by other competent 
authorities where appropriate. At the same time, given that the information exchanged 
may be confidential or involving personal data, it should remain protected from 
unauthorised access, in accordance with the purposes for which the information has 
been gathered. For this reason all communications between these authorities should 
take place on the basis of a reliable and secure information sharing system, whose 
details should be laid down in an implementing act. The information sharing system 
may be based on existing internal market tools, to the extent that they can meet the 
objectives of this Regulation in a cost-effective manner. 
 
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(101b) Without prejudice to the rights of recipients of intermediary services to turn to a 
representative in accordance with the Directive (EU) 2020/1828 of the European 
Parliament and of the Council of 25 November 2020 on representative actions for the 
protection of the collective interests of consumers and repealing Directive 
2009/22/EC45, recipients of the services should also have the right to mandate a legal 
person or a public body to exercise their rights provided for in this Regulation. Such 
rights may for example include the recipients of services rights related to the 
submission of notices, the challenging of the decisions taken by providers of 
intermediary services, and the lodging of complaints against the providers for 
infringing this Regulation. The right of representation of recipients of intermediary 
services under this Regulation should not preclude the application of additional rights 
of representation under national laws, provided that they do not affect the right of 
representation under this Regulation. 
(102)  In the interest of effectiveness and efficiency, in addition to the general evaluation of the 
Regulation, to be performed within five years of entry into force, after the initial start-up 
phase and on the basis of the first three years of application of this Regulation, the 
Commission should also perform an evaluation of the activities of the Board and on its 
structure. 
(103)  In order to ensure uniform conditions for the implementation of this Regulation, 
implementing powers should be conferred on the Commission. Those powers should be 
exercised in accordance with Regulation (EU) No 182/2011 of the European Parliament and 
of the Council46
                                                 
45 
OJ L 409, 4.12.2020, p. 1. 
46 
Regulation (EU) No 182/2011 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 
February 2011 laying down the rules and general principles concerning mechanisms for 
control by Member States of the Commission’s exercise of implementing powers (OJ L 55, 
28.2.2011, p. 13). 
 
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(104)  In order to fulfil the objectives of this Regulation, the power to adopt acts in accordance 
with Article 290 of the Treaty should be delegated to the Commission to supplement this 
Regulation. In particular, delegated acts should be adopted in respect of criteria for 
identification of very large online platforms and of very large online search engines and of 
technical specifications for access requests. It is of particular importance that the 
Commission carries out appropriate consultations and that those consultations be conducted 
in accordance with the principles laid down in the Interinstitutional Agreement on Better 
Law-Making of 13 April 2016. In particular, to ensure equal participation in the preparation 
of delegated acts, the European Parliament and the Council receive all documents at the 
same time as Member States' experts, and their experts systematically have access to 
meetings of Commission expert groups dealing with the preparation of delegated acts. 
(105)  This Regulation respects the fundamental rights recognised by the Charter and the 
fundamental rights constituting general principles of Union law. Accordingly, this 
Regulation should be interpreted and applied in accordance with those fundamental rights, 
including the freedom of expression and information, as well as the freedom and pluralism 
of the media. When exercising the powers set out in this Regulation, all public authorities 
involved should achieve, in situations where the relevant fundamental rights conflict, a fair 
balance between the rights concerned, in accordance with the principle of proportionality. 
 
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(106)  Since the objective of this Regulation, namely the proper functioning of the internal market 
and to ensure a safe, predictable and trusted online environment in which the fundamental 
rights enshrined in the Charter are duly protected, cannot be sufficiently achieved by the 
Member States because they cannot achieve the necessary harmonisation and cooperation by 
acting alone, but can rather, by reason of its territorial and personal scope, be better achieved 
at the Union level, the Union may adopt measures, in accordance with the principle of 
subsidiarity as set out in Article 5 of the Treaty on European Union. In accordance with the 
principle of proportionality, as set out in that Article, this Regulation does not go beyond 
what is necessary in order to achieve that objective., 
(107)  The European Data Protection Supervisor was consulted in accordance with 
Article 42(1) of Regulation (EU) 2018/1725 of the European Parliament and of the 
Council47 and delivered an opinion on 10 February 202148
HAVE ADOPTED THIS REGULATION: 
                                                 
47 
OJ L 295, 21.11.2018, p. 39 
48 
OJ C, p. 
 
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Chapter I – General provisions 
Article 1 
Subject matter, objectives and scope 
0. 
The aims of this Regulation are to:is to 
(a) 
contribute to the proper functioning of the internal market for intermediary services by 
(b) 
setting out uniform harmonised rules for a safe, predictable and trusted online 
environment, where fundamental rights enshrined in the Charter are effectively protected. 
1. 
This Regulation lays down harmonised rules on the provision of intermediary services in 
the internal market. In particular, it establishes: 
(a)  a framework for the conditional exemption from liability of providers of 
intermediary services; 
(b)  rules on specific due diligence obligations tailored to certain specific categories of 
providers of intermediary services; 
(c)  rules on the implementation and enforcement of this Regulation, including as regards 
the cooperation of and coordination between the competent authorities. 
2. 
The aims of this Regulation are to: [moved to paragraph 0
3. 
This Regulation shall apply to intermediary services providedoffered to recipients of the 
service that have their place of establishment or are locatedresidencein the Union, 
irrespective of the place of establishment of the providers of those services. 
4. 
This Regulation shall not apply to any service that is not an intermediary service or to any 
requirements imposed in respect of such a service, irrespective of whether the service is 
provided through the use of an intermediary service. 
 
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4a. 
This Regulation shall not affect the application of Directive 2000/31/EC. 
5. 
This Regulation is without prejudice to the rules laid down by other specific Union legal 
acts regulating other aspects of the provision of intermediary services in the internal 
market or specifying and complementing this Regulation, in particular, the following: 
(a)  Directive 2000/31/EC; 
(b)  Directive 2010/13/EUC; 
(c)  Union law on copyright and related rights; 
(d)  Regulation (EU) 2021…/784…. on preventing addressing the dissemination of 
terrorist content online [TCO once adopted]; 
(e)  Regulation (EU) …./….on European Production and Preservation Orders for 
electronic evidence in criminal matters and Directive (EU) …./….laying down 
harmonised rules on the appointment of legal representatives for the purpose of 
gathering evidence in criminal proceedings [e evidence once adopted] 
(f) 
Regulation (EU) 2019/1148; 
(g)  Regulation (EU) 2019/1150; 
(h)  Union law on consumer protection and product safety, including Regulation (EU) 
2017/2394; 
(i) 
Union law on the protection of personal data, in particular Regulation (EU) 2016/679 
and Directive 2002/58/EC
(j) 
Union law in the field of judicial cooperation in civil matters, in particular 
Regulation (EU) 1215/2012 or any Union legal act in the field of law applicable 
to contractual and non-contractual obligations; 
 
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(k)  Union law in the field of judicial cooperation in criminal matters, in particular 
Regulation (EU) …/… on European Production and Preservation Orders for 
electronic evidence in criminal matters; 
(l) 
Directive (EU) …/… laying down harmonised rules on the appointment of legal 
representatives for the purpose of gathering evidence in criminal proceedings. 
Article 2 
Definitions 
For the purposes of this Regulation, the following definitions shall apply: 
(a) 
‘information society services’ means services as defined in within the meaning of 
Article 1(1)(b) of Directive (EU) 2015/1535; 
(b) 
‘recipient of the service’ means any natural or legal person who for professional ends or 
otherwise, uses an intermediary service, in particular for the purposes of seeking 
information or making it accessiblethe relevant intermediary service; 
(c) 
‘consumer’ means any natural person who is acting for purposes which are outside his or 
her trade, business, craft or profession; 
(d) 
‘to offer services in the Union’ means enabling natural or legal or natural persons in one 
or more Member States to use the services of the provider of information 
societyintermediary services which has a substantial connection to the Union; 
 
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(da) 
such a substantial connection’ means a connection of an provider of intermediary 
services with the Union resulting either from its is deemed to exist where the provider 
has an establishment in the Union or from ; in the absence of such an establishment, the 
assessment of a substantial connection is based on specific factual criteria, such as: 
– 
a significant number of users recipients of the service in one or more Member States in 
relation to its or their population; or 
– 
the targeting of activities towards one or more Member States. 
(e) 
‘trader’ means any natural person, or any legal person irrespective of whether privately or 
publicly owned, who is acting, including through any person acting in his or her name or 
on his or her behalf, for purposes relating to his or her trade, business, craft or profession; 
(f) 
‘intermediary service’ means one of the following information society services: 
– 
a ‘mere conduit’ service that consists of the transmission in a communication network 
of information provided by a recipient of the service, or the provision of access to a 
communication network; 
– 
a ‘caching’ service that consists of the transmission in a communication network of 
information provided by a recipient of the service, involving the automatic, intermediate 
and temporary storage of that information, for the sole purpose of making more efficient 
the information's onward transmission to other recipients upon their request; 
– 
a ‘hosting’ service that consists of the storage of information provided by, and at the 
request of, a recipient of the service; 
– 
an ‘online search engine’ service that allows users to input queries in order to 
perform searches of, in principle, all websites, or all websites in a particular 
language, on the basis of a query on any subject in the form of a keyword, voice 
request, phrase or other input, and returns results in any format in which 
information related to the requested content can be found; 
 
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(g) 
‘illegal content’ means any information, which, in itself or by its reference to an activity, 
including the sale of products or provision of services, is not in compliance with Union law 
or the law of a Member State which is in compliance with Union law, irrespective of the 
precise subject matter or nature of that law; 
(h) 
‘online platform’ means a provider of a hosting service which, at the request of a recipient 
of the service, stores and disseminates to the public information, unless that activity is a 
minor and purely ancillary feature of another service and, for objective and technical 
reasons cannot be used without that other service, and the integration of the feature into the 
other service is not a means to circumvent the applicability of this Regulation;. 
(i) 
‘dissemination to the public’ means making information available, at the request of the 
recipient of the service who provided the information, to a potentially unlimited number of 
third parties; 
(ia) 
‘online marketplace’ means an online platform which allows consumers to conclude 
distance contracts with other traders or consumers; 
(j) 
‘distance contract’ means a contract as defined in within the meaning of Article 2 point 
(7) of Directive 2011/83/EU; 
(k) 
‘online interface’ means any software, including a website or a part thereof, and 
applications, including mobile applications; 
(l) 
‘Digital Services Coordinator of establishment’ means the Digital Services Coordinator of 
the Member State where the provider of an intermediary service is established or its legal 
representative resides or is established; 
(m) 
‘Digital Services Coordinator of destination’ means the Digital Services Coordinator of a 
Member State where the intermediary service is provided; 
 
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(ma) 
‘active recipient of an online platform’ means the recipient of the service that has 
engaged with an online platform by either requesting the online platform to host 
content or being exposed to content hosted by the online platform and disseminated 
through their online interface; 
(mb) 
‘active recipient of an online search engine’ means a recipient of the service that has 
engaged with the online search engine by queringquerying the online search engine 
and being exposed to content indexed and presented displayed on its online the 
interface of the online search engine; 
(n) 
‘advertisement’ means information designed to promote the message of a legal or natural 
person, irrespective of whether to achieve commercial or non-commercial purposes, and 
displayedserved presented by an online platform on its online interface against 
remuneration specifically for promoting that information; 
(o) 
‘recommender system’ means a fully or partially automated system used by an online 
platform to suggest in its online interface specific information to recipients of the service, 
including as a result of a search initiated by the recipient of the service or otherwise 
determining the relative order or prominence of information displayed; 
(p) 
‘content moderation’ means the activities, automated or not, undertaken by providers of 
intermediary services aimed, in particular at detecting, identifying and addressing illegal 
content or information incompatible with their terms and conditions, provided by recipients 
of the service, including measures taken that affect the availability, visibility, and 
accessibility of that illegal content or that information, such as demotion, demonetisation, 
disabling of access to, or removal thereof, or the recipients’ ability to provide that 
information, such as the termination or suspension of a recipient’s account; 
(q) 
‘terms and conditions’ means all terms and conditions or specificationsclauses
irrespective of their name or form, which govern the contractual relationship between the 
provider of intermediary services and the recipients of the services.; 
(r) 
‘turnover’ means the amount derived by an undertaking in accordance with as 
defined in Article 5(1) of Regulation (ECU) No 139/2004. 
 
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Chapter II – Liability of providers of intermediary services 
Article 3 
‘Mere conduit’ 
1. 
Where an information society service is provided that consists of the transmission in a 
communication network of information provided by a recipient of the service, or the 
provision of access to a communication network, the service provider shall not be liable for 
the information transmitted or accessed, on condition that the provider: 
(a)  does not initiate the transmission; 
(b)  does not select the receiver of the transmission; and 
(c)  does not select or modify the information contained in the transmission. 
2. 
The acts of transmission and of provision of access referred to in paragraph 1 include the 
automatic, intermediate and transient storage of the information transmitted in so far as this 
takes place for the sole purpose of carrying out the transmission in the communication 
network, and provided that the information is not stored for any period longer than is 
reasonably necessary for the transmission. 
3. 
This Article shall not affect the possibility for a court or administrative authority, in 
accordance with Member States' legal systems, of requiring the service provider to 
terminate or prevent an infringement. 
 
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Article 4 
‘Caching’ and online search engines 
1. 
Where an information society service is provided that consists of the transmission in a 
communication network of information provided by a recipient of the service, or of an 
online search engine, the service provider shall not be liable for the automatic, 
intermediate and temporary storage of that information, performed for the sole purpose of 
making more efficient the information's onward transmission to other recipients of the 
service upon their request, or for the search results locating the information related to 
the content requested by the recipient of the service, on condition that: 
(a)  the provider does not modify the information; 
(b)  the provider complies with conditions on access to the information; 
(c)  the provider complies with rules regarding the updating of the information, specified 
in a manner widely recognised and used by industry; 
(d)  the provider does not interfere with the lawful use of technology, widely recognised 
and used by industry, to obtain data on the use of the information; and 
(e)  the provider acts expeditiously to remove or to disable access to the information it 
has stored, indexed or located upon obtaining actual knowledge of the fact that the 
information at the initial source of the transmission has been removed from the 
network, or access to it has been disabled, or that a court or an administrative 
authority has ordered such removal or disablement. 
2. 
This Article shall not affect the possibility for a court or administrative authority, in 
accordance with Member States' legal systems, of requiring the service provider to 
terminate or prevent an infringement. 
 
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Article 5 
Hosting 
1. 
Where an information society service is provided that consists of the storage of 
information provided by a recipient of the service, the service provider shall not be liable 
for the information stored at the request of a recipient of the service on condition that the 
provider: 
(a)  does not have actual knowledge of illegal activity or illegal content and, as regards 
claims for damages, is not aware of facts or circumstances from which the illegal 
activity or illegal content is apparent; or 
(b)  upon obtaining such knowledge or awareness, acts expeditiously to remove or to 
disable access to the illegal content. 
2. 
Paragraph 1 shall not apply where the recipient of the service is acting under the authority 
or the control of the provider. 
3. 
Paragraph 1 shall not apply with respect to liability under consumer protection law 
ofwhere an online marketplaceplatforms allowing consumers to conclude distance 
contracts with traders, where such an online platform presents the specific item of 
information or otherwise enables the specific transaction at issue in a way that would lead 
an average and reasonably well informed consumer to believe that the information, or the 
product or service that is the object of the transaction, is provided either by the online 
platform marketplace itself or by a recipient of the service who is acting under its 
authority or control. 
4. 
This Article shall not affect the possibility for a court or administrative authority, in 
accordance with Member States' legal systems, of requiring the service provider to 
terminate or prevent an infringement. 
 
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Article 6 
Voluntary own-initiative investigations and legal compliance 
Providers of intermediary services shall not be deemed ineligible for the exemptions from liability 
referred to in Articles 3, 4 and 5 solely because they carry out in good faith and in a diligent 
manner voluntary own-initiative investigations or other activities aimed at detecting, identifying 
and removing, or disabling of access to, illegal content, or take the necessary measures to comply 
with the requirements of Union law, including those set out in this Regulation. 
Article 7 
No general monitoring or active fact-finding obligations 
No general obligation to monitor the information which providers of intermediary services transmit 
or store, nor actively to seek facts or circumstances indicating illegal activity shall be imposed on 
those providers. 
 
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Article 8 
Orders to act against illegal content 
1. 
Providers of intermediary services shall, upon the receipt of an order to act against one or 
more specific items of illegal content, issued by the relevant national judicial or 
administrative authorities, on the basis of the applicable Union or national law, in 
complianceconformity with Union law, inform the authority issuing the order or any 
other authority specified in the order of the effect given to the orders, without undue 
delay, specifying the action taken and the moment if and when the order action was 
appliedexecutedtaken and if the order was not given any effect, the reason thereof
2. 
Member States shall ensure that the orders referred to in paragraph 1 meet at least the 
following conditions, when they are transmitted to the provider
(a)  the orders contains the following elements: 
(i)–  a statement of reasons explaining why the information is illegal content, by 
reference to the one or more specific provisions of Union or national law 
infringed; 
(ii)   one or more exact uniform resource locators and, where necessary, additional 
information enabling the provider of intermediary services to identify and 
locate identification of the illegal content concerned, such as one or more exact 
uniform resource locators (URL)
(iii)–  information about redress available to the provider of the service and to the 
recipient of the service who provided the content; 
(iv)  where applicable, information about which authority should receive the 
information about the effect given to the orders; 
(b)  the territorial scope of the order, on the basis of the applicable rules of Union and 
national law, including the Charter, and, where relevant, general principles of 
international law, does not exceed what is strictly necessary to achieve its objective; 
 
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(c)  the order is drafted transmitted in one of the languages declared by the provider 
pursuant to Article 10(3) or in another official language of the Union, bilaterally 
agreed by the authority issuing the order and the provider, and is sent to the 
electronic point of contact, appointed established designated by thate provider, in 
accordance with Article 10. Where the order is not drafted in the language 
declared by the provider or in another language bilaterally agreed, the order 
may be transmitted in the language of the authority issuing the order, provided 
that it is accompanied by a translation of at least the elements set out in points 
(a) and (b) of this paragraph. 
2a. 
The authority issuing the order or, where applicable the authority specified in the 
order, shall transmit the order and the information received from the provider of 
intermediary services as to the effect given to the order to the Digital Services 
Coordinator from the Member State of the issuing authority. 
3. 
After receiving the order from the judicial or administrative authoritycompetent 
authority, tThe Digital Services Coordinator from thate Member State of the judicial or 
administrative authority issuing the order shall, without undue delay, transmit a copy of the 
orders referred to in paragraph 1 to all other Digital Services Coordinators through the 
system established in accordance with Article 67. 
3a. 
Without prejudice to national criminal procedural law in conformity with Union law, 
pProviders of intermediary services shall inform the recipient of the service who 
provided the content, at the latest at the time when the order was applied of the 
removal or disabling of access, of the order received and the effect given to it, or, 
where applicable, at the time provided by the issuing authority in its order in accordance 
with paragraph 1. Such information to the recipient of the service shall, at least, 
include the statement of reasons, and the redress possibilities, as included in the order 
pursuant to point a of paragraph 2, and the territorial scope of the order, as included 
in the order pursuant to paragraph 2. 
4. 
This Article shall be without prejudice to national civil and criminal procedural laws. 
The conditions and requirements laid down in this article shall be without prejudice to 
requirements under national criminal procedural law in conformity with Union law. 
 
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Article 9 
Orders to provide information 
1. 
Providers of intermediary services shall, upon receipt of an order to provide a specific item 
of information about one or more specific individual recipients of the service, issued by the 
relevant national judicial or administrative authorities on the basis of the applicable Union 
or national law, in conformity compliance with Union law, inform without undue delay 
the authority of issuing the order or any other authority specified in the order of its 
receipt, and of the effect given to the order, specifying if and when the order was applied 
and if the order was not given any effect, the reason thereof and the moment when 
the order was executed. 
2. 
Member States shall ensure that orders referred to in paragraph 1 meet the following 
conditions, when they are transmitted to the provider
(a)  the order contains the following elements: 
(i)   a statement of reasons explaining the objective for which the information is 
required and why the requirement to provide the information is necessary and 
proportionate to determine compliance by the recipients of the intermediary 
services with applicable Union or national rules, unless such a statement cannot be 
provided for reasons related to the prevention, investigation, detection and 
prosecution of criminal offences; 
(ii)–  information about redress available to the provider and to the recipients of the 
service concerned; 
(iii)  where applicable, information about which authority should receive the 
information about the effect given to the orders; 
(b)  the order only requires the provider to provide information already collected for the 
purposes of providing the service and which lies within its control; 
 
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(c)  the order is drafted transmitted in one of the languages declared by the provider 
pursuant to Article 10(3) or in another official language of the Union, bilaterally 
agreed by the authority issuing the order and the provider, and is sent to the 
electronic point of contact designated establishedappointed by that provider, in 
accordance with Article 10. Where the order is not drafted in the language 
declared by the provider or in another language bilaterally agreed, the order 
may be transmitted in the language of the authority issuing the order, provided 
that it is accompanied by a translation of at least the elements set out in points 
(a) and (b) of this paragraph.
2a. 
The authority issuing the order or, where applicable the authority specified in the 
order, shall transmit the order and the information received from the provider of 
intermediary services as to the effect given to the order to the Digital Services 
Coordinator from the Member State of the issuing authority. 
3. 
After receiving the order from the judicial or administrative competent authority, 
tThe Digital Services Coordinator from the that Member State of the national judicial or 
administrative authority issuing the order shall, without undue delay, transmit a copy of the 
order referred to in paragraph 1 to all Digital Services Coordinators through the system 
established in accordance with Article 67. 
3a. 
Without prejudice to national criminal procedural law in conformity with Union law, 
pProviders of intermediary services shall inform the recipient of the service 
concerned, at the latest at the time when the order is executedapplied, of the order 
received and the effect given to it, or, where applicable, at the time provided by the 
issuing authority in its order in accordance with paragraph 1. Such information to 
the recipient of the service shall, at least, include the statement of reasons and the 
redress possibilities, as included in the order pursuant to paragraph 2. 
4. 
This Article shall be without prejudice to national civil and criminal procedural laws. 
The conditions and requirements laid down in this article shall be without prejudice to 
requirements under national criminal procedural law in conformity with Union law. 
 
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Chapter III 
Due diligence obligations for a transparent and safe online 
environment 
SECTION 1 
PROVISIONS APPLICABLE TO ALL PROVIDERS OF INTERMEDIARY SERVICES 
Article 10 
Electronic pPoints of contact 
1. 
Providers of intermediary services shall establishdesignate a single point of contact 
allowing for direct communication, by electronic means, with Member States’ authorities, 
the Commission and the Board referred to in Article 47 for the application of this 
Regulation. 
2. 
Providers of intermediary services shall make public the information necessary to easily 
identify and communicate with their single electronic points of contact. This information 
shall be easily accessible. 
3. 
Providers of intermediary services shall specify in the information referred to in paragraph 
2, the official language or languages of the Union whichin addition to a language 
broadly understood by the largest possible number of Union citizens, which can be 
used to communicate with their electronic points of contact, and which shall include at 
least one of the official languages of the Member State in which the provider of 
intermediary services has its main establishment or where its legal representative resides or 
is established. 
 
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Article 11 
Legal representatives 
1. 
Providers of intermediary services which do not have an establishment in the Union but 
which offer services in the Union shall designate, in writing, a legal or natural person as 
their legal representative in one of the Member States where the provider offers its 
services. 
2. 
Providers of intermediary services shall mandate their legal representatives to be addressed 
in addition to or instead of the provider by the Member States’ competent authorities, the 
Commission and the Board on all issues necessary for the receipt of, compliance with and 
enforcement of decisions issued in relation to this Regulation. Providers of intermediary 
services shall provide their legal representative with the necessary powers and resource to 
cooperate with the Member States’ competent authorities, the Commission and the Board 
and comply with those decisions. 
3. 
The designated legal representative can be held liable for non-compliance with obligations 
under this Regulation, without prejudice to the liability and legal actions that could be 
initiated against the provider of intermediary services. 
4. 
Providers of intermediary services shall notify the name, address, the electronic mail 
address and telephone number of their legal representative to the Digital Service 
Coordinator in the Member State where that legal representative resides or is established. 
They shall ensure that that information is accurate and up to date. 
5. 
The designation of a legal representative within the Union pursuant to paragraph 1 shall 
not amount to an establishment in the Union. 
 
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Article 12 
Terms and conditions 
1. 
Providers of intermediary services shall include information on any restrictions that they 
impose in relation to the use of their service in respect of information provided by the 
recipients of the service, in their terms and conditions. That information shall include 
information on any policies, procedures, measures and tools used for the purpose of 
content moderation, including algorithmic decision-making and human review. It shall be 
set out in clear, plain, intelligible and unambiguous language and shall be publicly 
available in an easily accessible and machine-readable format. 
1a. 
Where an intermediary service is primarily aimed at minors or is pre-dominantly 
used by them, the provider shall explain conditions and restrictions for the use of the 
service in a way that minors can understand, including conditions and restrictions 
imposed to comply with its obligations under this Regulation, where applicable. 
2. 
Providers of intermediary services shall act in a diligent, objective and proportionate 
manner in applying and enforcing the restrictions referred to in paragraph 1, with due 
regard to the rights and legitimate interests of all parties involved, including the applicable 
fundamental rights of the recipients of the service as enshrined in the Charter. 
 
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Article 13 
Transparency reporting obligations for providers of intermediary services 
1. 
Providers of intermediary services shall publish make publicly available in a specific 
section in their online interface, at least once a year, clear and, easily comprehensible 
and detailed reports on any content moderation they engaged in during the relevant period. 
Those reports shall include, in particular, information on the following, as applicable: 
(a)  for providers of intermediary services, the number of orders received from 
Member States’ authorities, including orders issued in accordance with Articles 8 
and 9, categorised by the type of illegal content concerned, including orders issued 
in accordance with Articles 8 and 9, and the median average time needed for taking 
the action specified in those orders; 
(b)  for providers of hosting services, the number of notices submitted in accordance 
with Article 14, categorised by the type of alleged illegal content concerned, any 
action taken pursuant to the notices by differentiating whether the action was taken 
on the basis of the law or the terms and conditions of the provider, the number of 
notices submitted by trusted flaggers, the number of notices processed 
exclusively by automated means and the medianaverage time needed for taking the 
action; 
 
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(c)  for providers of intermediary services, as applicable, the content moderation 
engaged in at the providers’ own initiative, including the number and type of 
removals or other restrictions of the availability, measures taken that affectto 
restrict the availability, visibility and accessibility of information provided by the 
recipients of the service and the recipients’ ability to provide information through 
the service, and other related restrictions of the service. The information 
reported shall be, categorised by the type of illegal content or violation of the 
terms and conditions of the service provider, by the detection method and by 
the type of restriction applied method of detection of the infringement, the type 
of measure taken, and the type of alleged illegal content or infringement of the 
terms and conditions of the service providerby the type of reason and basis for 
taking those measures; 
(d)  for providers of intermediary services, as applicable, the number of complaints 
received through the internal complaint-handling systems in accordance with the 
provider’s terms and conditions and, for providers of online platforms, also in 
accordance with referred to in Article 17, the basis for those complaints, decisions 
taken in respect of those complaints, the median average time needed for taking 
those decisions and the number of instances where those decisions were reversed. 
2. 
Paragraph 1 shall not apply to providers of intermediary services that qualify as micro or 
small enterprises within the meaning of the Annex to Recommendation 2003/361/EC and 
which are not very large online platforms in accordance with Article 25. 
3. 
The Commission may adopt implementing acts to lay down templates concerning the 
form, content and other details of reports pursuant to paragraph 1. Those 
implementing acts shall be adopted in accordance with the advisory procedure 
referred to in Article 70. 
 
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SECTION 2 
ADDITIONAL PROVISIONS APPLICABLE TO PROVIDERS OF HOSTING SERVICES, 
INCLUDING ONLINE PLATFORMS 
Article 14 
Notice and action mechanisms 
1. 
Providers of hosting services shall put mechanisms in place to allow any individual or 
entity to notify them of the presence on their service of specific items of information that 
the individual or entity considers to be illegal content. Those mechanisms shall be easy to 
access, user-friendly, and allow for the submission of notices exclusively by electronic 
means. 
2. 
The mechanisms referred to in paragraph 1 shall be such as to facilitate the submission of 
sufficiently precise and adequately substantiated notices, on the basis of which a diligent 
economic operator can identify the illegality of the content in question. To that end, the 
providers shall take the necessary measures to enable and facilitate the submission of 
notices containing all of the following elements: 
(a)  an sufficiently substantiated explanation of the reasons why the individual or entity 
considers the information in question to be illegal content; 
(b)  a clear indication of the electronic location of that information, in particularsuch as 
the exact URL or URLs, and, where necessary, additional information enabling the 
identification of the illegal content; 
(c)  the name and an electronic mail address of the individual or entity submitting the 
notice, except in the case of information considered to involve one of the offences 
referred to in Articles 3 to 7 of Directive 2011/93/EU; 
(d)  a statement confirming the good faith belief of the individual or entity submitting the 
notice that the information and allegations contained therein are accurate and 
complete. 
 
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3. 
Notices that include the elements referred to in paragraph 2 on the basis of which a 
diligent provider of hosting services can identify the illegality of the content in 
question shall be considered to give rise to actual knowledge or awareness for the 
purposes of Article 5 in respect of the specific item of information concerned. 
4. 
Where the notice contains the name and an electronic contact information mail address of 
the individual or entity that submitted it, the provider of hosting services shall, promptly 
without undue delay, send a confirmation of receipt of the notice to that individual or 
entity. 
5. 
The provider shall also, without undue delay, notify that individual or entity of its decision 
in respect of the information to which the notice relates, providing information on the 
redress possibilities in respect of that decision. 
6. 
Providers of hosting services shall process any notices that they receive under the 
mechanisms referred to in paragraph 1, and take their decisions in respect of the 
information to which the notices relate, in a timely, diligent and objective manner. Where 
they use automated means for that processing or decision-making, they shall include 
information on such use in the notification referred to in paragraph 54. 
 
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Article 15 
Statement of reasons 
1. 
Providers of hosting services shall provide a clear and specific statement of 
reasons to any affected recipients of the service for any of the following 
restrictions imposed: 
a)  any restrictions of the visibility of specific items of information provided by 
the recipient of the service, including removal of content, or disabling access 
to content; 
b)  suspension, termination or other restriction of monetary payments 
(monetisation); 
c)  suspension or termination of the provision of the service in whole or in part; 
d)  suspension or termination of the recipient's accounts. 
This paragraph shall only apply where the relevant electronic contact details are 
known to the provider. It shall apply at the latest when the restriction is imposed, 
and regardless of why or how it was imposed. 
1. Where a provider of hosting services decides to remove or disable access to or 
otherwise restrict the visibility of specific items of information provided by the 
recipients of the service, or to suspend or terminate monetary payments related to 
those items, irrespective of the means used for detecting, identifying or removing or 
disabling access to or for restricting the visibility or monetisation of that 
information and of the reason for its decision, it shall inform the recipient where the 
electronic contact details are known to the providerprior to orat the latest at the 
time of the removal or disabling of access or the restriction of visibility or 
monetisation taking effect, of the decision and providewith a clear and specific 
statement of reasons for that decision. 
 
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2. 
The statement of reasons referred to in paragraph 1 shall at least contain the following 
information: 
(a)  whether the decision entails either the removal of, or the disabling of access to, the 
restriction of the visibility of, the information or the suspension or termination of 
monetary payments related to that informationand, where relevant, the territorial 
scope of the disabling of access; 
(b)  the facts and circumstances relied on in taking the decision, including where relevant 
whether the decision was taken pursuant to a notice submitted in accordance with 
Article 14; 
(c)  where applicable, information on the use made of automated means in taking the 
decision, including where the decision was taken in respect of content detected or 
identified using automated means; 
(d)  where the decision concerns allegedly illegal content, a reference to the legal ground 
relied on and explanations as to why the information is considered to be illegal 
content on that ground; 
(e)  where the decision is based on the alleged incompatibility of the information with the 
terms and conditions of the provider, a reference to the contractual ground relied on 
and explanations as to why the information is considered to be incompatible with that 
ground; 
(f) 
information on the redress possibilities available to the recipient of the service in 
respect of the decision, in particular through internal complaint-handling 
mechanisms, out-of-court dispute settlement and judicial redress
3. 
The information provided by the providers of hosting services in accordance with this 
Article shall be clear and easily comprehensible and as precise and specific as reasonably 
possible under the given circumstances. The information shall, in particular, be such as to 
reasonably allow the recipient of the service concerned to effectively exercise the redress 
possibilities referred to in point (f) of paragraph 2. 
 
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4. 
Providers of hosting services shall publish the decisions and the statements of reasons, 
referred to in paragraph 1 in a publicly accessible database managed by the Commission. 
That information shall not contain personal data. 
Article 15a21 
Notification of suspicions of criminal offences 
1. 
Where an provider of hosting services online platform becomes aware of any information 
giving rise to a suspicion that a serious criminal offence involving a threat to the life or 
safety of a person or persons has taken place, is taking place or is likely to take place, it 
shall promptly inform the law enforcement or judicial authorities of the Member State or 
Member States concerned of its suspicion and provide all relevant information available. 
2. 
Where the provider of hosting servicesonline platform cannot identify with reasonable 
certainty the Member State concerned, it shall inform the law enforcement authorities of 
the Member State in which it is established or has its legal representative or inform 
Europol. 
For the purpose of this Article, the Member State concerned shall be the Member State where 
the offence is suspected to have taken place, be taking place and likely to take place, or the 
Member State where the suspected offender resides or is located, or the Member State where 
the victim of the suspected offence resides or is located. 
 
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SECTION 3 
ADDITIONAL PROVISIONS APPLICABLE TO PROVIDERS OF ONLINE PLATFORMS 
Article 16 
Exclusion for micro and small enterprises 
This Section and Section 3a shall not apply to providers of online platforms that qualify as micro 
or small enterprises within the meaning of the Annex to Recommendation 2003/361/EC and except 
when they arewhich are not very large online platforms in accordance with Article 25. 
Article 17 
Internal complaint-handling system 
1. 
Providers of oOnline platforms shall provide recipients of the service and individuals or 
entities that have submitted a notice, for a period of at least six months following the 
decision referred to in this paragraph, the access to an effective internal complaint-
handling system, which enables the complaints to be lodged electronically and free of 
charge, against the decision taken by the provider of the online platform not to act 
upon the receipt of a notice or against the following decisions taken by the provider of 
the online platform on the ground that the information provided by the recipients is illegal 
content or incompatible with its terms and conditions: 
(a)  decisions whether or not to remove or disable access to or restrict visibility of the 
information; 
(b)  decisions whether or not to suspend or terminate the provision of the service, in 
whole or in part, to the recipients; 
(c)  decisions whether or not to suspend or terminate the recipients’ account
 
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(d)  decision whether or not to suspend, terminate or otherwise restrict monetary 
payments related to restrict the ability to monetize content provided by the 
recipients
2. 
Providers of oOnline platforms shall ensure that their internal complaint-handling systems 
are easy to access, user-friendly and enable and facilitate the submission of sufficiently 
precise and adequately substantiated complaints. 
3. 
Providers of Online platforms shall handle complaints submitted through their internal 
complaint-handling system in a timely, diligent and objective manner. Where a complaint 
contains sufficient grounds for the provider of the online platform to consider that its 
decision not to act upon the request of a notice is unfounded or that the information to 
which the complaint relates is not illegal and is not incompatible with its terms and 
conditions, or contains information indicating that the complainant’s conduct does not 
warrant the suspension or termination of the service or the account or the restriction to 
monetary payments related to content, it shall reverse its decision referred to in 
paragraph 1 without undue delay. 
4. 
Providers of oOnline platforms shall inform complainants without undue delay of the 
decision they have taken in respect of the information to which the complaint relates
clearly justify their decision and shall inform complainants of the possibility of out-of-
court dispute settlement provided for in Article 18 and other available redress possibilities. 
5. 
Providers of oOnline platforms shall ensure that the decisions, referred to in paragraph 4, 
are not solely taken on the basis of automated means. 
 
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Article 18 
Out-of-court dispute settlement 
1. 
Recipients of the service and individuals or entities that have submitted notices, 
addressed by the decisions referred to in Article 17(1), shall be entitled to select any out-
of-court dispute settlement body that has been certified authorised in accordance with 
paragraph 2 in order to resolve disputes relating to those decisions, including complaints 
that could not be resolved by means of the internal complaint-handling system referred to 
in that Article. Providers of oOnline platforms shall engage, in good faith, with the body 
selected with a view to resolving the dispute and shall be bound by the decision taken by 
the body. 
The first subparagraph is without prejudice to the right of the recipient or the individual or 
entity concerned, or the provider of online platforms to redress against the decision before 
a court in accordance with the applicable law. 
Online platform may refuse to engage in dispute settlement when the same dispute 
regarding the same content has already been resolved or is being reviewed by another 
dispute settlement body. 
2. 
The Digital Services Coordinator of the Member State where the out-of-court dispute 
settlement body is established shall, at the request of that body, certify authorise the body, 
where the body has demonstrated that it meets all of the following conditions: 
(a)  it is impartial and independent of providers of online platforms, of and recipients of 
the service provided by the online platforms and of individuals or entities that 
have submitted notices
(b)  it has the necessary expertise in relation to the issues arising in one or more particular 
areas of illegal content, or in relation to the application and enforcement of terms and 
conditions of one or more types of online platforms, allowing the body to contribute 
effectively to the settlement of a dispute; 
 
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(c)  the dispute settlement is easily accessible through electronic communication 
technology; 
(d)  it is capable of settling dispute in a swift, efficient and cost-effective manner and in 
at least one official language of the Union; 
(e)  the dispute settlement takes place in accordance with clear and fair rules of 
procedure, in compliance with applicable legislation
The Digital Services Coordinator shall, where applicable, specify in the certificate 
authorisation the particular issues to which the body’s expertise relates and the official 
language or languages of the Union in which the body is capable of settling disputes, as 
referred to in points (b) and (d) of the first subparagraph, respectively. 
2a. 
Where an out-of-court dispute settlement body is authorised by the competent Digital 
Services Coordinator pursuant to paragraph 2, that authorisation shall be valid in all 
Member States. 
3. 
If the body decides the dispute in favour of the recipient of the service or of the individual 
or entity that have submitted a notice, the provider of the online platform shall 
reimburse the recipient or the individual or entity for any fees and other reasonable 
expenses that the recipient hasthey have paid or areis to pay in relation to the dispute 
settlement or waive any such fees or reasonable expenses that may otherwise be due. If 
the body decides the dispute in favour of the online platform, the recipient or the 
individual or body entity, shall not be required to reimburse any fees or other expenses 
that the provider of the online platform paid or is to pay in relation to the dispute 
settlement unless the recipient or the individual or entity acted in manifestly bad faith. 
The fees charged by the body for the dispute settlement shall be reasonable, accessible, 
attractive and inexpensive for consumers and shall in any event not exceed the costs 
thereof. 
 
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Certified Authorised out-of-court dispute settlement bodies shall make the fees, or the 
mechanisms used to determine the fees, known to the recipient of the services or to the 
individuals or entities that have submitted a notice and the provider of the online platform 
concerned before engaging in the dispute settlement. 
4. 
Member States may establish out-of-court dispute settlement bodies for the purposes of 
paragraph 1 or support the activities of some or all out-of-court dispute settlement bodies 
that they have been certified authorised in accordance with paragraph 2. 
Member States shall ensure that any of their activities undertaken under the first 
subparagraph do not affect the ability of their Digital Services Coordinators to certify 
authorise the bodies concerned in accordance with paragraph 2. 
4a. 
The Digital Services Coordinator that awarded the status of out-of-court dispute 
settlement body to an entity shall revoke that status if it determines, following an 
investigation either on its own initiative or on the basis of the information received by 
third parties, that the body no longer meets the conditions set out in paragraph 2. 
Before revoking that status, the Digital Services Coordinator shall afford the body an 
opportunity to react to the findings of its investigation and its intention to revoke the 
body’s authorisation. 
5. 
Digital Services Coordinators shall notify to the Commission the out-of-court dispute 
settlement bodies that they have certified authorised in accordance with paragraph 2, 
including where applicable the specifications referred to in the second subparagraph of that 
paragraph, as well as the out-of-court dispute settlement bodies whose authorisation 
they have revoked. The Commission shall publish a list of those bodies, including those 
specifications, on a dedicated website that is easily accessible, and keep it updated. 
6. 
This Article is without prejudice to Directive 2013/11/EU and alternative dispute 
resolution procedures and entities for consumers established under that Directive. 
 
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Article 19 
Trusted flaggers 
1. 
Providers of oOnline platforms shall take the necessary technical and organisational 
measures to ensure that notices submitted by trusted flaggers through the mechanisms 
referred to in Article 14, are processed and decided upon with priority and without delay. 
2. 
The status of trusted flaggers under this Regulation shall be awarded, upon application by 
any entities, by the Digital Services Coordinator of the Member State in which the 
applicant is established, where the applicant has demonstrated to meet all of the following 
conditions: 
(a)  it has particular expertise and competence for the purposes of detecting, identifying 
and notifying illegal content; 
(b)  it represents collective interests and it is independent from any provider of online 
platforms
(c)  it carries out its activities for the purposes of submitting notices in a timely, diligent 
and objective manner. 
3. 
Digital Services Coordinators shall communicate to the Commission and the Board the 
names, addresses and electronic mail addresses of the entities to which they have awarded 
the status of the trusted flagger in accordance with paragraph 2 or revoked it in 
accordance with paragraph 6
4. 
The Commission shall publish the information referred to in paragraph 3 in a publicly 
available and easily accessible database and keep the database updated. 
 
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5. 
Where a provider of an online platforms has information indicating that a trusted flagger 
submitted a significant number of insufficiently precise or inadequately substantiated 
notices through the mechanisms referred to in Article 14, including information gathered in 
connection to the processing of complaints through the internal complaint-handling 
systems referred to in Article 17(3), it shall communicate that information to the Digital 
Services Coordinator that awarded the status of trusted flagger to the entity concerned, 
providing the necessary explanations and supporting documents. 
6. 
The Digital Services Coordinator that awarded the status of trusted flagger to an entity 
shall revoke that status if it determines, following an investigation either on its own 
initiative or on the basis information received by third parties, including the information 
provided by a provider of an online platforms pursuant to paragraph 5, that the entity no 
longer meets the conditions set out in paragraph 2. Before revoking that status, the Digital 
Services Coordinator shall afford the entity an opportunity to react to the findings of its 
investigation and its intention to revoke the entity’s status as trusted flagger. 
7. 
The Commission, after consulting the Board, may issue guidance to assist providers of 
online platforms and Digital Services Coordinators in the application of paragraphs 2, 
and 6. 
Article 20 
Measures and protection against misuse 
1. 
Providers of oOnline platforms shall suspend, for a reasonable period of time and after 
having issued a prior warning, the provision of their services to recipients of the service 
that frequently provide manifestly illegal content. 
2. 
Providers of Online platforms shallmay suspend, for a reasonable period of time and after 
having issued a prior warning, the processing of notices and complaints submitted through 
the notice and action mechanisms and internal complaints-handling systems referred to in 
Articles 14 and 17, respectively, by individuals or entities or by complainants that 
frequently submit notices or complaints that are manifestly unfounded. 
 
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3. 
When deciding on the suspension, providers of oOnline platforms shall assess, on a 
case-by-case basis and in a timely, diligent and objective manner, whether a recipient, 
individual, entity or complainant engages in the misuse referred to in paragraphs 1 and 2, 
taking into account all relevant facts and circumstances apparent from the information 
available to the provider of the online platform. Those circumstances shall include at least 
the following: 
(a)  the absolute numbers of items of manifestly illegal content or manifestly unfounded 
notices or complaints, submitted in a given time framethe past year; 
(b)  the relative proportion thereof in relation to the total number of items of information 
provided or notices submitted in the past yeara given time frame
(c)  the gravity of the misuses, including the nature of illegal content, and of its 
consequences; 
(d)  where it is possible to infer it, the intention of the recipient, individual, entity or 
complainant. 
4. 
Providers of oOnline platforms shall set out, in a clear and detailed manner, their policy in 
respect of the misuse referred to in paragraphs 1 and 2 in their terms and conditions, 
including as regards the facts and circumstances that they take into account when assessing 
whether certain behaviour constitutes misuse and the duration of the suspension. 
 
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Article 21 
Notification of suspicions of criminal offences 
1. 
Where an online platform becomes aware of any information giving rise to a suspicion that 
a serious criminal offence involving a threat to the life or safety of persons has taken place, 
is taking place or is likely to take place, it shall promptly inform the law enforcement or 
judicial authorities of the Member State or Member States concerned of its suspicion and 
provide all relevant information available. 
2. 
Where the online platform cannot identify with reasonable certainty the Member State 
concerned, it shall inform the law enforcement authorities of the Member State in which it 
is established or has its legal representative or inform Europol. 
For the purpose of this Article, the Member State concerned shall be the Member State where 
the offence is suspected to have taken place, be taking place and likely to take place, or the 
Member State where the suspected offender resides or is located, or the Member State where 
the victim of the suspected offence resides or is located. 
 
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[Article 22 moved to Article 24a, into new Section 3a] 
Article 22 
Traceability of traders 
1. 
Where an online platform allows consumers to conclude distance contracts with traders, it 
shall ensure that traders can only use its services to promote messages on or to offer 
products or services to consumers located in the Union if, prior to the use of its services, 
the online platform has obtained the following information: 
(a)  the name, address, telephone number and electronic mail address of the trader; 
(b)  a copy of the identification document of the trader or any other electronic 
identification as defined by Article 3 of Regulation (EU) No 910/2014 of the 
European Parliament and of the Council49
(c)  the bank account details of the trader, where the trader is a natural person; 
(d)  the name, address, telephone number and electronic mail address of the economic 
operator, within the meaning of Article 3(13) and Article 4 of Regulation (EU) 
2019/1020 of the European Parliament and the Council50 or any relevant act of Union 
law; 
                                                 
49 
Regulation (EU) No 910/2014 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 July 
2014 on electronic identification and trust services for electronic transactions in the internal 
market and repealing Directive 1999/93/EC 
50 
Regulation (EU) 2019/1020 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 20 June 2019 
on market surveillance and compliance of products and amending Directive 2004/42/EC and 
Regulations (EC) No 765/2008 and (EU) No 305/2011 (OJ L 169, 25.6.2019, p. 1). 
 
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(e)  where the trader is registered in a trade register or similar public register, the trade 
register in which the trader is registered and its registration number or equivalent 
means of identification in that register; 
(f) 
a self certification by the trader committing to only offer products or services that 
comply with the applicable rules of Union law. 
2. 
The online platform shall, upon receiving that information, make reasonable efforts 
to assess whether the information referred to in points (a), (d) and (e) of paragraph 1 is 
reliable through the use of any freely accessible official online database or online interface 
made available by a Member States or the Union or through requests to the trader to provide 
supporting documents from reliable sources. 
3. 
Where the online platform obtains indications that any item of information referred to in 
paragraph 1 obtained from the trader concerned is inaccurate or incomplete, that platform 
shall request the trader to correct the information in so far as necessary to ensure that all 
information is accurate and complete, without delay or within the time period set by Union 
and national law. 
Where the trader fails to correct or complete that information, the online platform shall 
suspend the provision of its service to the trader until the request is complied with. 
4. 
The online platform shall store the information obtained pursuant to paragraph 1 and 2 in a 
secure manner for the duration of their contractual relationship with the trader concerned. 
They shall subsequently delete the information. 
5. 
Without prejudice to paragraph 2, the platform shall only disclose the information to third 
parties where so required in accordance with the applicable law, including the orders 
referred to in Article 9 and any orders issued by Member States’ competent authorities or 
the Commission for the performance of their tasks under this Regulation. 
 
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6. 
The online platform shall make the information referred to in points (a), (d), (e) and (f) of 
paragraph 1 available to the recipients of the service, in a clear, easily accessible and 
comprehensible manner. 
7. 
The online platform shall design and organise its online interface in a way that 
enables traders to comply with their obligations regarding pre contractual information and 
product safety information under applicable Union law. 
Article 23 
Transparency reporting obligations for providers of online platforms 
1. 
In addition to the information referred to in Article 13, providers of online platforms shall 
include in the reports referred to in that Article information on the following: 
(a)  the number of disputes submitted to the out-of-court dispute settlement bodies 
referred to in Article 18, the outcomes of the dispute settlement and the median 
average time needed for completing the dispute settlement procedures; 
(b)  the number of suspensions imposed pursuant to Article 20, distinguishing between 
suspensions enacted for the provision of manifestly illegal content, the submission of 
manifestly unfounded notices and the submission of manifestly unfounded 
complaints; 
(c)  any use made of automatic means for the purpose of content moderation, including a 
specification of the precise purposes, indicators of the accuracy of the automated 
means in fulfilling those purposes and any safeguards applied. 
2. 
Providers of oOnline platforms shall publish in a publicly available section of their 
online interface, at least once every six months, information on the average monthly 
active recipients of the service in each Member State, calculated as an average over the 
period of the past six months, in accordance with the methodology laid down in the 
delegated acts adopted pursuant to Article 25(2). 
 
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3. 
Providers of oOnline platforms shall communicate to the Digital Services Coordinator of 
establishment, upon its request, the information referred to in paragraph 2, updated to the 
moment of such request. That Digital Services Coordinator may require the provider of 
the online platform to provide additional information as regards the calculation referred to 
in that paragraph, including explanations and substantiation in respect of the data used. 
That information shall not include personal data. 
4. 
The Commission may adopt implementing acts to lay down templates concerning the form, 
content and other details of reports pursuant to paragraph 1. Those implementing acts 
shall be adopted in accordance with the advisory procedure referred to in Article 70. 
Article 24 
Online advertising transparency 
Providers of oOnline platforms that presentdisplay advertising on their online interfaces shall 
ensure that the recipients of the service can identify, for each specific advertisement displayed 
presented to each individual recipient, in a clear, salient and unambiguous manner and in real time: 
(a) 
that the information displayed presented is an advertisement, including through 
prominent marking
(b) 
the natural or legal person on whose behalf the advertisement is displayedpresented
(c) 
meaningful information about the main parameters used to determine the recipient to 
whom the advertisement is displayedpresented, presented displayed in an easily 
accessible manner . The information shall be directly and easily accessible from the 
advertisement. 
 
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Providers of online platforms shall provide recipients of the service with a functionality to 
declare whether the content they provide is or contains commercial communications within 
the meaning of Article 2(f) of Directive 2000/31/EC. 
When the content provider submits a declaration pursuant to this paragraph, the provider of 
online platform shall ensure that other recipients of the service can identify in a clear and 
unambiguous manner and in real time, through prominent marking, that the content 
provided by the recipients of the service is or contains commercial communications. 
SECTION 3A 
PROVISIONS APPLICABLE TO PROVIDERS OF ONLINE MARKETPLACES 
Article 224a 
Traceability of traders 
1. 
Where an online platform allows consumers to conclude distance contracts with traders, it 
Providers of online marketplaces shall ensure that traders can only use its their services 
to promote messages on or to offer products or services to consumers located in the Union 
if, prior to the use of its their services, the providers of online platform marketplaces 
haves obtained the following information, where applicable
(a)  the name, address, telephone number and electronic mail address of the trader; 
(b)  a copy of the identification document of the trader or any other electronic 
identification as defined by Article 3 of Regulation (EU) No 910/2014 of the 
European Parliament and of the Council51
(c)  the bank payment account details of the trader, where the trader is a natural person; 
                                                 
51 
Regulation (EU) No 910/2014 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 July 
2014 on electronic identification and trust services for electronic transactions in the internal 
market and repealing Directive 1999/93/EC. 
 
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(d)  the name, address, telephone number and electronic mail address of the economic 
operator, within the meaning of Article 3(13) and Article 4 of Regulation (EU) 
2019/1020 of the European Parliament and the Council or any relevant act of Union 
law; 
(e)  where the trader is registered in a trade register or similar public register, the trade 
register in which the trader is registered and its registration number or equivalent 
means of identification in that register; 
(f) 
a self-certification by the trader committing to only offer products or services that 
comply with the applicable rules of Union law. 
2. 
The provider of the online platform marketplace shall, upon receiving that information, 
make reasonable reasonable best efforts to assess, prior to the use of their services, 
whether the information referred to in point (d) of paragraph 1, and prior to the use of 
their services, points (a), (d) and (e) of paragraph 1 is reliable through the use of any 
freely accessible official online database or online interface made available by a Member 
States or the Union or through requests to the trader to provide supporting documents from 
reliable sources. 
3. 
Where the provider of the online platform marketplace obtains sufficient indications that 
any item of information referred to in paragraph 1 obtained from the trader concerned is 
inaccurate, or incomplete or not up to date, that marketplace platform shall request the 
trader to correct the information in so far as necessary to ensure that all information is 
accurate, and complete and up to date, without delay or within the time period set by 
Union and national law. 
Where the trader fails to correct or complete that information, the online platform 
marketplace shall suspend the provision of its service to the trader until the request is 
complied with. 
 
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4. 
The provider of the online marketplace platform shall store the information obtained 
pursuant to paragraph 1 and 2 in a secure manner for the duration of 6 months after the 
end of the their contractual relationship with the trader concerned. They shall subsequently 
delete the information. 
5. 
Without prejudice to paragraph 2, the providers of online marketplaces platform shall 
only disclose the information to third parties where so required in accordance with the 
applicable law, including the orders referred to in Article 9 and any orders issued by 
Member States’ competent authorities or the Commission for the performance of their 
tasks under this Regulation. 
6. 
The provider of online marketplace platform shall make the information referred to in 
points (a), (d), (e) and (f) of paragraph 1 available to the recipients of the service, at least 
on the product listing, in a clear, easily accessible and comprehensible manner. 
7. 
The online platform shall design and organise its online interface in a way that enables 
traders to comply with their obligations regarding pre contractual information and product 
safety information under applicable Union law. [this provision is moved to Article 24b] 
 
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Article 24b 
Compliance by design 
1. 
Providers of online marketplaces shall design and organise its their online interface in 
a way that enables traders to comply with their obligations regarding pre-contractual 
information and product safety information under applicable Union law. 
In particular, such online interfaces shall enable traders to provide information on 
the name, address, telephone number and electronic mail address of the economic 
operator, within the meaning of Article 3(13) and Article 4 of Regulation (EU) 
2019/1020 of the European Parliament and the Council or any relevant act of Union 
law. 
2. 
The online interface shall allow traders to provide at least the information necessary 
for the unequivocalclear and unambiguous identification of the products or the 
services offered, and, where applicable, the information concerning the labelling in 
compliance with rules of applicable Union law on product safety and product 
compliance. 
3. 
Providers of online marketplaces shall make reasonable efforts to assess whether 
traders have provided the information referred to in paragraphs 1 and 2. 
 
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Article 24c 
Right to information 
1. 
Where a provider of an online marketplace becomes aware, irrespective of the means 
used to, of the illegal nature of a product or service offered through its services, it 
shall inform those recipients of the service that had acquired such product or 
contracted such service during the last six months about the illegality, the identity of 
the trader and any means of redress. 
2. 
Where the provider of the online marketplace does not have the contact details of the 
recipients of the service referred to in paragraph 1, the provider shall make publicly 
available and easily accessible on their online interface the information concerning 
the illegal products or services removed, the identity of the trader and any means of 
redress. 
 
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SECTION 4 
 ADDITIONAL OBLIGATIONS FOR PROVIDERS OF VERY LARGE ONLINE PLATFORMS 
AND VERY LARGE ONLINE SEARCH ENGINES TO MANAGE SYSTEMIC RISKS 
Article 25 
Very large online platforms 
1. 
This Section shall apply to online platforms which provide their servicesreach to a number 
of average monthly active recipients of the service in the Union equal to or higher than 45 
million, calculated in accordance with the methodology set out in the delegated acts 
referred to in paragraph 3, and which are designated as very large online platforms 
pursuant to paragraph 4
2. 
The Commission shall adopt delegated acts in accordance with Article 69 to adjust the 
number of average monthly recipients of the service in the Union referred to in paragraph 
1, where the Union’s population increases or decreases at least with 5 % in relation to its 
population in 2020 or, after adjustment by means of a delegated act, of its population in the 
year in which the latest delegated act was adopted. In that case, it shall adjust the number 
so that it corresponds to 10% of the Union’s population in the year in which it adopts the 
delegated act, rounded up or down to allow the number to be expressed in millions. 
3. 
The Commission shall be empowered to shall adopt delegated acts in accordance with 
Article 69, after consulting the Board, to provide additional specifications for the lay 
down a specific methodology for calculating the number of average monthly active 
recipients of the service in the Union, for the purposes of paragraph 1 of this Article and 
Article 23(2), in order to adapt to the changes in the accessibility features of different 
services. The methodology shall specify, in particular, how to determine the Union’s 
population and criteria to determine the average monthly active recipients of the service in 
the Union, taking into account different accessibility features. 
 
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4. 
The Digital Services Coordinator of establishment shall adopt a decision designating as a 
very large online platform for the purposes of this Regulation the online platform under 
their jurisdiction which have a verify, at least every six months, whether the number of 
average monthly active recipients of the service in the Union of online platforms under their 
jurisdiction is equal to or higher than the number referred to in paragraph 1. The Digital 
Services Coordinator of establishment shall take its decision on the basis of data 
reported by the provider of the online platform pursuant to Article 23(2), additional 
information requested pursuant to Article 23(3) and any other reliable data sources at 
its disposal. On the basis of that verification, it shall adopt a decision designating the online 
platform as a very large online platform for the purposes of this Regulation, or terminating 
that designation, and communicate that decision, without undue delay, to the online platform 
concerned and to the Commission. 
When the Digital Services Coordinator of establishment bases its decision on other 
reliable data sources pursuant to the first sub-paragraph of this paragraph, the Digital 
Services Coordinator shall require the concerned provider of online platform to provide 
its views within 10 working days on the preliminary findings by the Digital Services 
Coordinator that it intends to designate the online platform as a very large online 
platform. 
The absence of the views of the provider of the online platform pursuant to the second 
sub-paragraph of this paragraph shall not prevent the Digital Services Coordinator of 
establishment from designating that online platform as a very large online platform 
based on such reliable data sources. 
5. 
Pursuant to the designation, the Digital Services Coordinator shall verify, at least every 
six months, that the very large online platform continues to have a number of average 
monthly active recipients of the service equal to or higher than the number referred to 
in paragraph 1. If the service has a lower number of average monthly active recipients 
during one year, the Digital Services Coordinator of establishment shall terminate the 
designation. 
 
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6. 
The Digital Services Coordinator shall communicate its decisions pursuant to 
paragraphs 4 and 5, without undue delay, to the provider of the online platform 
concerned, to the Board and to the Commission. 
The Commission shall ensure that the list of designated very large online platforms is 
published in the Official Journal of the European Union and keep that list updated. The 
obligations of this Section shall apply, or cease to apply, to the very large online platforms 
concerned from four months after that publication. 
Article 25a 
Timely assessment of notices submitted by trusted flaggers 
Providers of very large online platforms shall ensure that they have the means available to 
determine whether notices referred to in Article 19 relate to manifestly illegal content on 
average within [24 hours/ 48 hours] of the receipt of the notice. 
Article 26 
Risk assessment 
1. 
Providers of vVery large online platforms shall identify, analyse and assess, from the date 
of application referred to in the second subparagraph of Article 25(64), at least once a year 
thereafter, any significant systemic risks stemming from the functioning and use made of 
their services in the Union. This risk assessment shall be specific to their services and shall 
include the following systemic risks: 
(a)  the dissemination of illegal content through their services; 
(b)  any negative effects for the exercise of the fundamental rights to respect for private 
and family life, freedom of expression and information, the prohibition of 
discrimination and the rights of the child, as enshrined in Articles 7, 11, 21 and 24 of 
the Charter respectively; 
 
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(c)  intentional manipulation of their service, including by means of inauthentic use or 
automated exploitation of the service, with an actual or foreseeable negative effect on 
the protection of public health, minors, civic discourse, or actual or foreseeable 
effects related to electoral processes and public security. 
2. 
When conducting risk assessments, providers of very large online platforms shall take into 
account, in particular, how their content moderation systems, recommender systems and 
systems for selecting and presentingdisplaying advertisement influence any of the 
systemic risks referred to in paragraph 1, including the potentially rapid and wide 
dissemination of illegal content and of information that is incompatible with their terms 
and conditions. 
Article 27 
Mitigation of risks 
1. 
Providers of vVery large online platforms shall put in place reasonable, proportionate and 
effective mitigation measures, tailored to the specific systemic risks identified pursuant to 
Article 26, with particular consideration to the impacts of such measures on 
fundamental rights. Such measures may include, where applicable: 
(a)  adapting content moderation or recommender systems, their decision-making 
processes, including the resources dedicated to them, the features or functioning of 
their services, or their terms and conditions; 
(b)  targeted measures aimed at limiting the presentation display of advertisements in 
association with the service they provide; 
(c)  reinforcing the internal processes or supervision of any of their activities in particular 
as regards detection of systemic risk; 
(d)  initiating or adjusting cooperation with trusted flaggers in accordance with Article 
19; 
 
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(e)  initiating or adjusting cooperation with other providers of online platforms through 
the codes of conduct and the crisis protocols referred to in Article 35 and 37 
respectively. 
(f) 
taking awareness-raising measures and adapting their online interface for 
increased user information; 
(g)  taking targeted measures to protect children’s rights, including age verification 
and parental control tools, or tools aimed at helping minors signal abuse or 
obtain support, as appropriate. 
2. 
The Board, in cooperation with the Commission, shall publish comprehensive reports, once 
a year, which shall include the following: 
(a)  identification and assessment of the most prominent and recurrent systemic risks 
reported by providers of very large online platforms or identified through other 
information sources, in particular those provided in compliance with Article 31 and 
33; 
(b)  best practices for providers of very large online platforms to mitigate the systemic 
risks identified. 
3. 
The Commission, in cooperation with the Digital Services Coordinators, may issue general 
guidelines on the application of paragraph 1 in relation to specific risks, in particular to 
present best practices and recommend possible measures, having due regard to the possible 
consequences of the measures on fundamental rights enshrined in the Charter of all parties 
involved. When preparing those guidelines the Commission shall organise public 
consultations. 
 
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Article 28 
Independent audit 
1. 
Providers of vVery large online platforms shall be subject, at their own expense and at 
least once a year, to audits to assess compliance with the following: 
(a)  the obligations set out in Chapter III; 
(b)  any commitments undertaken pursuant to the codes of conduct referred to in Articles 
35 and 36 and the crisis protocols referred to in Article 37. 
2. 
Audits performed pursuant to paragraph 1 shall be performed according to best industry 
practices by organisations which: 
(a)  are independent from the provider of very large online platforms concerned; 
(b)  have proven expertise in the area of risk management, technical competence and 
capabilities; 
(c)  have proven objectivity and professional ethics, based in particular on adherence to 
codes of practice or appropriate standards.; 
3. 
The organisations that perform the audits shall establish an audit report for each audit. The 
report shall be substantiated in writing and include at least the following: 
(a)  the name, address and the point of contact of the very large online platform subject to 
the audit and the period covered; 
(b)  the name and address of the organisation performing the audit; 
(c)  a description of the specific elements audited, and the methodology applied; 
(d)  a description of the main findings drawn from the audit; 
 
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(e)  an audit opinion on whether the provider of the very large online platform subject to 
the audit complied with the obligations and with the commitments referred to in 
paragraph 1, either positive, positive with comments or negative; 
(f) 
where the audit opinion is not positive, operational recommendations on specific 
measures to achieve compliance and the expected timeframe to achieve 
compliance
4. 
Providers of vVery large online platforms receiving an audit report that is not positive 
shall take due account of any operational recommendations addressed to them with a view 
to take the necessary measures to implement them. They shall, within one month from 
receiving those recommendations, adopt an audit implementation report setting out those 
measures. Where they do not implement the operational recommendations, they shall 
justify in the audit implementation report the reasons for not doing so and set out any 
alternative measures they may have taken to address any instances of non-compliance 
identified. 
Article 29 
Recommender systems 
1. 
Providers of vVery large online platforms that use recommender systems shall set out in 
their terms and conditions, in a clear, accessible and easily comprehensible manner, the 
main parameters used in their recommender systems, as well as any options for the 
recipients of the service to modify or influence those main parameters that they may have 
made available, including at least one option which is not based on profiling, within the 
meaning of Article 4 (4) of Regulation (EU) 2016/679. Providers of very large online 
platforms shall also make this information directly and easily accessible on thea 
specific section of the online interface where the information is being prioritised 
according to the recommender systemrecommended. 
 
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2. 
Where several options are available pursuant to paragraph 1, providers of very large 
online platforms shall provide a directly and an easily accessible functionality on their 
online interface where the information is recommended, allowing the recipient of the 
service to select and to modify at any time their preferred option for each of the 
recommender systems that determines the relative order of information presented to them. 
Article 30 
Additional online advertising transparency 
1. 
Providers of vVery large online platforms that presentdisplay advertising on their online 
interfaces shall compile and make publicly available in a specific section of their online 
interface and through application programming interfaces a repository containing the 
information referred to in paragraph 2, until one year after the advertisement was 
presenteddisplayed for the last time on their online interfaces. They shall ensure that the 
repository does not contain any personal data of the recipients of the service to whom the 
advertisement was or could have been displayedpresented
2. 
The repository shall include at least all of the following information: 
(a)  the content of the advertisement, including the name of the product, service or 
brand and the subject matter of the advertisement
(b)  the natural or legal person on whose behalf the advertisement is displayedpresented
(c)  the period during which the advertisement was presenteddisplayed; 
(d)  whether the advertisement was intended to be presenteddisplayed specifically to one 
or more particular groups of recipients of the service and if so, the main parameters 
used for that purpose; 
(e)  the total number of recipients of the service reached and, where applicable, aggregate 
numbers in each Member State for the group or groups of recipients to whom the 
advertisement was targeted specifically. 
 
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Article 31 
Data access and scrutiny 
1. 
Providers of vVery large online platforms shall provide the Digital Services Coordinator 
of establishment or the Commission, upon their reasoned request and within a reasonable 
period, specified in the request, access to data that are necessary to monitor and assess 
compliance with this Regulation. That Digital Services Coordinator and the Commission 
shall only use that data for those purposes. 
1a. 
Digital Services Coordinators and the Commission shall only use that data accessed 
pursuant to paragraph 1 for the purpose of monitoring compliance with this 
Regulation and shall take due account of the rights and interests of the providers of 
very large online platforms and the recipients of the service concerned, including the 
protection of confidential information, in particular trade secrets, and maintaining 
the security of their service. 
2. 
Upon a reasoned request from the Digital Services Coordinator of establishment or the 
Commission, providers of very large online platforms shall, within a reasonable period, as 
specified in the request, provide access to data to vetted researchers who meet the 
requirements in paragraphs 4 of this Article, for the sole purpose of conducting research 
that contributes to the identification and understanding of systemic risks in the Union, as 
set out pursuant to in Article 26(1), including as regards the adequacy, efficiency and 
impacts of the risk mitigation measures pursuant to Article 27
2a6. 
Within 15 days following receipt of a request as referred to in paragraph 1 and 2, 
providers of a very large online platforms may request the Digital Services Coordinator of 
establishment or the Commission, as applicable, to amend the request, where it considers 
that it is unable to give access to the data requested because one of following two reasons: 
(a)  it does not have access to the data; 
(b)  giving access to the data will lead to significant vulnerabilities for the security of its 
service or the protection of confidential information, in particular trade secrets. 
 
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2b7. 
Requests for amendment pursuant to paragraph 2a point (b) of paragraph 6 shall contain 
proposals for one or more alternative means through which access may be provided to the 
requested data or other data which are appropriate and sufficient for the purpose of the 
request. 
The Digital Services Coordinator of establishment or the Commission shall decide upon 
the request for amendment within 15 days and communicate to the provider of very large 
online platforms its decision and, where relevant, the amended request and the new time 
period to comply with the request. 
3. 
Providers of vVery large online platforms shall facilitate and provide access to data 
pursuant to paragraphs 1 and 2 through appropriate interfaces specified in the request, 
including online databases or application programming interfaces, as specified in the 
requestappropriate. 
4. 
Upon a duly substantiated application from researchers, the Digital Services 
Coordinator of establishment or the Commission shall award them status of vetted 
researchers and issue data access requests pursuant to paragraph 2, where the 
researchers demonstrate that they meet all of the following conditions: 
(a)  they are In order to be vetted, researchers shall be affiliated to a research 
organisation, within the meaning of Article 2 (1) of Directive (EU) 2019/790with 
academic institutions,
(b)  they are be independent from commercial interests
(c)  they are, have proven records of expertise in the fields related to the risks 
investigated or related research methodologies, and shall commit and be in a capacity 
to preserve the specific data security and confidentiality requirements corresponding 
to each request
 
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(d)  the application submitted by the researchers justifies the necessity and 
proportionality for the purpose of their research of the data requested and the 
timeframes within which they request access to the data, and they demonstrate 
the contribution of the research results to the purposes laid down in paragraph 
2; 
(e)  they carry out their activities for the purposes laid down in paragrah 2; 
(f) 
they carry their activities according to the procedures laid down in delegated 
acts referred to in paragraph 5; 
(g)  they have not already filed the same application with the Commission or the 
Digital Services Coordinator, as appropriate. 
Upon receipt of the application pursuant to this paragraph, the Commission or the 
Digital Services Coordinator of establishment, as appropriate, shall inform each 
other. 
4a. 
The Commission or the Digital Services Coordinator that awarded the status of 
vetted researcher and issued the access request in favour of a vetted researcher shall 
issue a decision terminating the access if it determines, following an investigation 
either on its own initiative or on the basis information received from third parties, 
that the vetted researcher no longer meets the conditions set out in paragraph 4. 
Before terminating the access, the Commission or the Digital Services Coordinator 
shall allow the vetted researcher to react to the findings of its investigation and its 
intention to terminate the access. 
4b. 
Digital  Services  Coordinators  and  the  Commission  shall  communicate  to  the  Board 
the  names  and  contact  information  of  the  natural  persons  or  entities  to  which  they 
have  awarded  the  status  of  the  vetted  researcher  as  well  as  the  purpose  of  the 
research underpinning the request in accordance with paragraph 4 or that they have 
terminated it in accordance with paragraph 4a. 
 
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4c. 
Providers of very large online platforms shall not restrict or prevent in any way 
access to data publicly accessible in their online interface for researchers who comply 
with the conditions set in points b), c) and d) of paragraph 4 and who use the data 
solely for performing research that contributes to the identification and 
understanding of systemic risks in the Union as set out pursuant to Article 26(1). 
4d. 
Upon completion of the research envisaged in paragraphs 2 and 4, the vetted 
researchers shall make their research freely and publicly available, taking into 
account the rights and interests of the recipients of the service concerned in 
compliance with Regulation (EU) 2019/679. 
5. 
The Commission shall, after consulting the Board, adopt delegated acts laying down the 
technical conditions under which providers of very large online platforms are to share data 
pursuant to paragraphs 1 and 2 and the purposes for which the data may be used. Those 
delegated acts shall lay down the specific conditions and procedures under which such 
sharing of data with vetted researchers can take place in compliance with Regulation (EU) 
2016/679, taking into account the rights and interests of the providers of very large online 
platforms and the recipients of the service concerned, including the protection of 
confidential information, in particular trade secrets, and maintaining the security of their 
service. 
6. 
Within 15 days following receipt of a request as referred to in paragraph 1 and 2, 
providers of a very large online platforms may request the Digital Services Coordinator of 
establishment or the Commission, as applicable, to amend the request, where it considers 
that it is unable to give access to the data requested because one of following two reasons: 
(a)  it does not have access to the data; 
(b)  giving access to the data will lead to significant vulnerabilities for the security of its 
service or the protection of confidential information, in particular trade secrets. 
[moved to new paragraph 2a] 
 
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7. 
Requests for amendment pursuant to point (b) of paragraph 6 shall contain proposals for 
one or more alternative means through which access may be provided to the requested data 
or other data which are appropriate and sufficient for the purpose of the request. 
The Digital Services Coordinator of establishment or the Commission shall decide upon 
the request for amendment within 15 days and communicate to the provider of very large 
online platforms its decision and, where relevant, the amended request and the new time 
period to comply with the request.[moved to new paragraph 2b] 
Article 32 
Compliance officers 
1. 
Providers of very large online platforms shall establish a compliance function 
composed of one or more compliance officers independent from the operational 
functions. The compliance function shall have sufficient authority, stature and 
resources, as well as access to the management body of the provider of the very large 
online platform to monitor the compliance of that provider with this Regulation. 
2. 
Compliance officers shall have the professional qualifications, knowledge, experience 
and ability necessary to fulfil the tasks referred to in paragraph 3. 
The management body of the provider of very large online platform shall appoint a 
head of the compliance function who is an independent senior manager with distinct 
responsibility for the compliance function. 
The head of the compliance function can report directly to the management body of 
the provider of very large online platform, independent from senior management, 
and can raise concerns and warn that body where risks referred to in Article 26 or 
non-compliance with this Regulation affect or may affect the provider of very large 
online platform concerned, without prejudice to the responsibilities of the 
management body in its supervisory and managerial functions. 
 
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The head of the compliance function shall not be removed without prior approval of 
the management body of the provider of very large online platform. 
1. 
Providers of vVery large online platforms shall appoint one or more compliance officers 
responsible for monitoring their compliance with this Regulation. 
2. 
Providers of vVery large online platforms shall only designate as compliance officers 
persons who have the professional qualifications, knowledge, experience and ability 
necessary to fulfil the tasks referred to in paragraph 3. Compliance officers may either be 
staff members of, or fulfil those tasks on the basis of a contract with, the provider of the 
very large online platform concerned. 
3. 
Compliance officers shall have the following tasks: 
(a)  cooperating with the Digital Services Coordinator of establishment and the 
Commission for the purpose of this Regulation; 
(aa)  ensuring that all risks referred to in Article 26 are identified and properly 
reported on and that reasonable, proportionate and effective risk mitigation 
measures are taken pursuant to Article 27; 
(b)  organising and supervising the very large online platform’s activities relating to the 
independent audit pursuant to Article 28; 
(c)  informing and advising the management and employees of the provider of the very 
large online platform about relevant obligations under this Regulation; 
(d)  monitoring the compliance of the provider of the very large online platform’s 
compliance with its obligations under this Regulation;. 
(e)  where applicable, monitoring compliance of the provider of the very large 
online platform with commitments made under the codes of conduct pursuant 
to Articles 35 and 36 or the crisis protocols pursuant to Article 37. 
 
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4. 
Providers of vVery large online platforms shall take the necessary measures to ensure that 
the compliance officers can perform their tasks in an independent manner. 
5. 
Providers of vVery large online platforms shall communicate the name and contact details 
of the compliance officers in the compliance function to the Digital Services Coordinator 
of establishment and the Commission. 
6. 
Providers of vVery large online platforms shall support the compliance officer in the 
performance of his or her tasks and provide him or her with the resources necessary to 
adequately carry out those tasks. The compliance officer shall directly report to the highest 
management level of the platform. The management body of the provider of very large 
online platform shall define, oversee and be accountable for the implementation of 
the provider's governance arrangements that ensure independence of the compliance 
function, including the segregation of duties in the organisation of the provider of 
very large online platform, the prevention of conflicts of interest, and sound 
management of systemic risks identified pursuant to Article 26. 
7. 
The management body shall approve and review periodically, at least once a year, the 
strategies and policies for taking up, managing, monitoring and mitigating the risks 
identified pursuant to Article 26 to which the very large online platform is or may be 
exposed to. 
8. 
The management body shall devote sufficient time to the consideration of the 
measures related to risk management. It shall be actively involved in the decisions 
related to risk management and ensure that adequate resources are allocated to the 
management of the risks identified pursuant to Article 26. 
 
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Article 33 
Transparency reporting obligations for very large online platforms 
1. 
Providers of vVery large online platforms shall publish the reports referred to in Article 
13, including the information referred to in Article 23 within six months from the date 
of application referred to in Article 25(4), and thereafter every six months. 
1a. 
The reports pursuant to paragraph 1 shall also detail the human resources dedicated 
by the provider of very large online platforms to content moderation and processing 
complaints pursuant to Article 17 and shall specify the specialist and linguistic 
expertise of the staff, as well as the training and support given to such staff. 
2. 
In addition to the reports provided for in Article 13 , including the information referred 
to in Article 23providers of very large online platforms shall make publicly available 
and transmit to the Digital Services Coordinator of establishment and the Commission, at 
least once a year and within 30 days following the adoption of the audit implementing 
report provided for in Article 28(4): 
(a)  a report setting out the results of the risk assessment pursuant to Article 26; 
(b)  the related risk mitigation measures identified and implemented pursuant to Article 
27; 
(c)  the audit report provided for in Article 28(3); 
(d)  the audit implementation report provided for in Article 28(4). 
 
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3. 
Where a provider of very large online platforms considers that the publication of 
information pursuant to paragraph 2 may result in the disclosure of confidential 
information of that platform or of the recipients of the service, may cause significant 
vulnerabilities for the security of its service, may undermine public security or may harm 
recipients, the platform provider may remove such information from the reports. In that 
case, that platform the provider shall transmit the complete reports to the Digital Services 
Coordinator of establishment and the Commission, accompanied by a statement of the 
reasons for removing the information from the public reports. 
Article 33a 
Very large online search engines 
This Section shall apply, mutatis mutandis, to online search engines which reach a number of 
average monthly active recipients of the service in the Union equal to or higher than 45 
milion, and which are designated as very large online search engines in accordance with 
Article 25(4). 
For the purpose of determining the number of average monthly active recipients of the 
service, Article 23(2) and Article 23(3) shall apply to all online search engines. 
 
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SECTION 5 
OTHER PROVISIONS CONCERNING DUE DILIGENCE OBLIGATIONS 
Article 34 
Standards 
1. 
The Commission shall consult the Board and shall support and promote the development 
and implementation of voluntary industry standards set by relevant European and 
international standardisation bodies at least for the following: 
(a)  electronic submission of notices under Article 14; 
(b)  electronic submission of notices by trusted flaggers under Article 19, including 
through application programming interfaces; 
(c)  specific interfaces, including application programming interfaces, to facilitate 
compliance with the obligations set out in Articles 30 and 31; 
(d)  auditing of very large online platforms set out pursuant to Article 28; 
(e)  interoperability of the advertisement repositories referred to in Article 30(2); 
(f) 
transmission of data between advertising intermediaries in support of transparency 
obligations pursuant to points (b) and (c) of Article 24
(g)  prominent marking of advertisments and of commercial communication within 
content disseminated through online platforms pursuant to Article 24
 
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2. 
The Commission shall support the update of the standards in the light of technological 
developments and the behaviour of the recipients of the services in question. The relevant 
information regarding the update of the standards shall be publicly available and 
easily accessible. 
Article 35 
Codes of conduct 
1. 
The Commission and the Board shall encourage and facilitate the drawing up of codes of 
conduct at Union level to contribute to the proper application of this Regulation, taking 
into account in particular the specific challenges of tackling different types of illegal 
content and systemic risks, in accordance with Union law, in particular on competition and 
the protection of personal data. 
2. 
Where significant systemic risk within the meaning of Article 26(1) emerge and concern 
several very large online platforms, the Commission may invite the providers of the very 
large online platforms concerned, other providers of very large online platforms, other of 
online platforms and other providers of intermediary services, as appropriate, as well as 
civil society organisations and other interested parties, to participate in the drawing up of 
codes of conduct, including by setting out commitments to take specific risk mitigation 
measures, as well as a regular reporting framework on any measures taken and their 
outcomes. 
3. 
When giving effect to paragraphs 1 and 2, the Commission and the Board and where 
relevant other bodies shall aim to ensure that the codes of conduct clearly set out their 
objectives, contain key performance indicators to measure the achievement of those 
objectives and take due account of the needs and interests of all interested parties, 
including citizens, at Union level. The Commission and the Board shall also aim to ensure 
that participants report regularly to the Commission and their respective Digital Service 
Coordinators of establishment on any measures taken and their outcomes, as measured 
against the key performance indicators that they contain. 
 
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4. 
The Commission and the Board shall assess whether the codes of conduct meet the aims 
specified in paragraphs 1 and 3, and shall regularly monitor and evaluate the achievement 
of their objectives. They shall publish their conclusions. 
5. 
The Board shall regularly monitor and evaluate the achievement of the objectives of the 
codes of conduct, having regard to the key performance indicators that they may contain. 
Article 36 
Codes of conduct for online advertising 
1. 
The Commission shall encourage and facilitate the drawing up of codes of conduct at 
Union level between, providers of online platforms and other relevant service providers, 
such as providers of online advertising intermediary services, other actors involved in the 
programmatic advertising value chain, or organisations representing recipients of the 
service and civil society organisations or relevant authorities to contribute to further 
transparency in online advertising beyond the requirements of Articles 24 and 30. 
2. 
The Commission shall aim to ensure that the codes of conduct pursue an effective 
transmission of information, in full respect for the rights and interests of all parties 
involved, and a competitive, transparent and fair environment in online advertising, in 
accordance with Union and national law, in particular on competition and the protection of 
personal data. The Commission shall aim to ensure that the codes of conduct address at 
least: 
(a)  the transmission of information held by providers of online advertising 
intermediaries to recipients of the service with regard to requirements set in points 
(b) and (c) of Article 24; 
(b)  the transmission of information held by providers of online advertising 
intermediaries to the repositories pursuant to Article 30. 
 
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3. 
The Commission shall encourage the development of the codes of conduct within one year 
following the date of application of this Regulation and their application no later than six 
months after that date. 
Article 37 
Crisis protocols 
1. 
The Board may recommend the Commission to initiate the drawing up, in accordance with 
paragraphs 2, 3 and 4, of crisis protocols for addressing crisis situations strictly limited to 
extraordinary circumstances affecting public security or public health. 
2. 
The Commission shall encourage and facilitate very large online platforms and, where 
appropriate, other online platforms, with the involvement of the Commission, to participate 
in the drawing up, testing and application of those crisis protocols, which include one or 
more of the following measures: 
(a)  displaying prominent information on the crisis situation provided by Member States’ 
authorities or at Union level or by other relevant reliable bodies depending on the 
context of the crisis
(b)  ensuring that the intermediary service provider appoints a specific point of 
contact responsible for crisis management; where relevant, this may be the 
electronic point of contact referred to in Article 10 is responsible for crisis 
management or, in the case of very large online platforms, the compliance officer 
referred to in Article 32
(c)  where applicable, adapt the resources dedicated to compliance with the obligations 
set out in Articles 14, 17, 19, 20 and 27 to the needs created by the crisis situation. 
 
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3. 
The Commission shall may involve, as appropriate, Member States’ authorities and may 
also involve Union bodies, offices and agencies in drawing up, testing and supervising the 
application of the crisis protocols. The Commission may, where necessary and appropriate, 
also involve civil society organisations or other relevant organisations in drawing up the 
crisis protocols. 
4. 
The Commission shall aim to ensure that the crisis protocols set out clearly all of the 
following: 
(a)  the specific parameters to determine what constitutes the specific extraordinary 
circumstance the crisis protocol seeks to address and the objectives it pursues; 
(b)  the role of each participant and the measures they are to put in place in preparation 
and once the crisis protocol has been activated; 
(c)  a clear procedure for determining when the crisis protocol is to be activated; 
(d)  a clear procedure for determining the period during which the measures to be taken 
once the crisis protocol has been activated are to be taken, which is strictly limited to 
what is necessary for addressing the specific extraordinary circumstances concerned; 
(e)  safeguards to address any negative effects on the exercise of the fundamental rights 
enshrined in the Charter, in particular the freedom of expression and information and 
the right to non-discrimination; 
(f) 
a process to publicly report on any measures taken, their duration and their outcomes, 
upon the termination of the crisis situation. 
5. 
If the Commission considers that a crisis protocol fails to effectively address the crisis 
situation, or to safeguard the exercise of fundamental rights as referred to in point (e) of 
paragraph 4, it may request the participants to revise the crisis protocol, including by 
taking additional measures. 
 
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Chapter IV 
Implementation, cooperation, sanctions and enforcement 
SECTION 1 
COMPETENT AUTHORITIES AND NATIONAL DIGITAL SERVICES COORDINATORS 
Article 38 
Competent authorities and Digital Services Coordinators 
1. 
Member States shall designate one or more competent authorities as responsible for the 
application and enforcement of this Regulation (‘competent authorities’). 
2. 
Member States shall designate one of the competent authorities as their Digital Services 
Coordinator. The Digital Services Coordinator shall be responsible for all matters relating 
to application and enforcement of this Regulation in that Member State, unless the Member 
State concerned has assigned certain specific tasks or sectors to other competent 
authorities. The Digital Services Coordinator shall in any event be responsible for ensuring 
coordination at national level in respect of those matters and for contributing to the 
effective and consistent application and enforcement of this Regulation throughout the 
Union. 
For that purpose, Digital Services Coordinators shall cooperate with each other, other 
national competent authorities, the Board and the Commission, without prejudice to the 
possibility for Member States to provide for regular exchanges of views of the Digital 
Services Coordinator with other national authorities where relevant for the performance 
of their respective tasks of those other authorities and of the Digital Services Coordinator. 
 
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Where a Member State designates one or more more than one competent authority in 
addition to the Digital Services Coordinator, it shall ensure that the respective tasks of 
those authorities and of the Digital Services Coordinator are clearly defined and that they 
cooperate closely and effectively when performing their tasks. The Member State 
concerned shall communicate the name of the other competent authorities as well as their 
respective tasks to the Commission and the Board. 
3. 
Member States shall designate the Digital Services Coordinators within two ten months 
from the date of entry into force of this Regulation. 
Member States shall make publicly available, and communicate to the Commission and the 
Board, the name of their competent authority designated as Digital Services Coordinator 
and information on how it can be contacted. 
4. 
The provisionsrequirements applicable to Digital Services Coordinators set out in Articles 
39, 40 and 41 shall also apply to any other competent authorities that the Member States 
designate pursuant to paragraph 1. 
Article 39 
Requirements for Digital Services Coordinators 
1. 
Member States shall ensure that their Digital Services Coordinators perform their tasks 
under this Regulation in an impartial, transparent and timely manner. Member States shall 
ensure that their Digital Services Coordinators have all necessary means to carry out 
their tasks, including sufficient adequate technical, financial and human resources to 
carry out their tasks.taking into account in particular the reach, the nature and the 
extent of activities of the providers of intermediary services under their jurisdiction. 
Each Member State shall ensure that each Digital Services Coordinator has separate, 
public annual budgets, which may be part of the overall state or national budget, 
without affecting the independence of the Digital Services Coordinator. 
 
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2. 
When carrying out their tasks and exercising their powers in accordance with this 
Regulation, the Digital Services Coordinators shall act with complete independence. They 
shall remain free from any external influence, whether direct or indirect, and shall neither 
seek nor take instructions from any other public authority or any private party. 
3. 
Paragraph 2 is without prejudice to the tasks of Digital Services Coordinators within the 
system of supervision and enforcement provided for in this Regulation and the cooperation 
with other competent authorities in accordance with Article 38(2). Paragraph 2 shall not 
prevent the exercise of judicial review and shall also be without prejudice to 
proportionate accountability requirements regarding the general activities of the 
Digital Services Coordinators, such as financial expenditure or reporting to national 
parliaments. The exercise of the judicial review and proportionate accountability 
requirements shall not undermine, without endangering the achievement of the 
objectives of this Regulation. supervision of the authorities concerned in accordance with 
national constitutional law. 
 
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Article 40 
Jurisdiction 
1. 
The Member State in which the main establishment of the provider of intermediary 
services is located shall have jurisdiction for the purposes of application and enforcement 
of the obligations placed on providers of intermediary servicesies by this Regulation 
by the national competent authorities in accordance with this ChapterChapters III and 
IV of this Regulation. 
2. 
A provider of intermediary services which does not have an establishment in the Union but 
which offers services in the Union shall, for the purposes of this ArticleChapters III and 
IV, be deemed to be under the jurisdiction of the Member State where its legal 
representative resides or is established. 
3. 
Where a provider of intermediary services fails to appoint a legal representative in 
accordance with Article 11, all Member States shall have jurisdiction for the purposes of 
Chapters III and IVthis Article. Where a Member State decides to exercise jurisdiction 
under this paragraph, it shall inform all other Member States and ensure that the 
applicable safeguards afforded by the Charter are respected.the principle of ne bis in 
idem is respected. Proceedings for the same facts and effects as those referred to in the 
information given in accordance with this paragraph shall not be launched by 
competent authorities in other Member States or shall be suspended. 
4. 
Paragraphs 1, 2 and 3 are without prejudice to the second subparagraph of Article 50(4) 
and the second subparagraph of Article 51(2) and the tasks and powers of the Commission 
under Section 3. 
 
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Article 41 
Powers of Digital Services Coordinators 
1. 
Where needed for carrying out their tasks under this Regulation, Digital Services 
Coordinators shall have at least the following powers of investigation in accordance with 
the procedures laid down in national law, in respect of conduct by providers of 
intermediary services under the jurisdiction of their Member State: 
(a)  the power to require those providers, as well as any other persons acting for purposes 
related to their trade, business, craft or profession that may reasonably be aware of 
information relating to a suspected infringement of this Regulation, including, 
organisations performing the audits referred to in Articles 28 and 50(3), to provide 
such information within a reasonable time period; 
(b)  the power to carry out, or request a judicial authority in their Member State to 
order, on site inspections of any premises that those providers or those persons use 
for purposes related to their trade, business, craft or profession, or to request other 
public authorities to do so, in order to examine, seize, take or obtain copies of 
information relating to a suspected infringement in any form, irrespective of the 
storage medium; 
(c)  the power to ask any member of staff or representative of those providers or those 
persons to give explanations in respect of any information relating to a suspected 
infringement and to record the answers. 
 
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2. 
Where needed for carrying out their tasks under this Regulation, Digital Services 
Coordinators shall have at least the following enforcement powers in accordance with the 
procedures laid down in national law, in respect of providers of intermediary services 
under the jurisdiction of their Member State: 
(a)  the power to accept the commitments offered by those providers in relation to their 
compliance with this Regulation and to make those commitments binding; 
(b)  the power to order the cessation of infringements and, where appropriate, to impose 
remedies proportionate to the infringement and necessary to bring the infringement 
effectively to an end; 
(c)  the power to impose fines, or request a judicial authority in their Member State 
to do so, in accordance with Article 42 for failure to comply with this Regulation, 
including with any of the investigatory orders issued pursuant to paragraph 1; 
(d)  the power to impose a periodic penalty payment, or request a judicial authority in 
their Member State to do so, in accordance with Article 42 to ensure that an 
infringement is terminated in compliance with an order issued pursuant to point (b) 
of this paragraph or for failure to comply with any of the investigatory orders issued 
pursuant to paragraph 1; 
(e)  the power to adopt interim measures to avoid the risk of serious harm. 
As regards points (c) and (d) of the first subparagraph, Digital Services Coordinators shall 
also have the enforcement powers set out in those points in respect of the other persons 
referred to in paragraph 1 for failure to comply with any of the orders issued to them 
pursuant to that paragraph. They shall only exercise those enforcement powers after having 
provided those others persons in good time with all relevant information relating to such 
orders, including the applicable time period, the fines or periodic payments that may be 
imposed for failure to comply and redress possibilities. 
 
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3. 
Where needed for carrying out their tasks, Digital Services Coordinators shall also have, in 
respect of providers of intermediary services under the jurisdiction of their Member State, 
where all other powers pursuant to this Article to bring about the cessation of an 
infringement have been exhausted, the infringement persists and causes serious harm 
which cannot be avoided through the exercise of other powers available under Union or 
national law, the power to take the following measures: 
(a)  require the management body of the providers, within a reasonable time period, to 
examine the situation, adopt and submit an action plan setting out the necessary 
measures to terminate the infringement, ensure that the provider takes those 
measures, and report on the measures taken; 
(b)  where the Digital Services Coordinator considers that the provider has not 
sufficiently complied with the requirements of the first indent, that the infringement 
persists and causes serious harm, and that the infringement entails a serious criminal 
offence involving a threat to the life or safety of persons, request the competent 
judicial authority of that Member State to order the temporary restriction of access of 
recipients of the service concerned by the infringement or, only where that is not 
technically feasible, to the online interface of the provider of intermediary services 
on which the infringement takes place. 
The Digital Services Coordinator shall, except where it acts upon the Commission’s 
request referred to in Article 65, prior to submitting the request referred to in point (b) of 
the first subparagraph, invite interested parties to submit written observations within a time 
period that shall not be less than two weeks, describing the measures that it intends to 
request and identifying the intended addressee or addressees thereof. The provider, the 
intended addressee or addressees and any other third party demonstrating a legitimate 
interest shall be entitled to participate in the proceedings before the competent judicial 
authority. Any measure ordered shall be proportionate to the nature, gravity, recurrence 
and duration of the infringement, without unduly restricting access to lawful information 
by recipients of the service concerned. 
 
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The restriction shall be for a period of four weeks, subject to the possibility for the 
competent judicial authority, in its order, to allow the Digital Services Coordinator to 
extend that period for further periods of the same lengths, subject to a maximum number of 
extensions set by that judicial authority. The Digital Services Coordinator shall only extend 
the period where it considers, having regard to the rights and interests of all parties affected 
by the restriction and all relevant circumstances, including any information that the 
provider, the addressee or addressees and any other third party that demonstrated a 
legitimate interest may provide to it, that both of the following conditions have been met: 
(a)  the provider has failed to take the necessary measures to terminate the infringement; 
(b)  the temporary restriction does not unduly restrict access to lawful information by 
recipients of the service, having regard to the number of recipients affected and 
whether any adequate and readily accessible alternatives exist. 
Where the Digital Services Coordinator considers that those two conditions have been met 
but it cannot further extend the period pursuant to the third subparagraph, it shall submit a 
new request to the competent judicial authority, as referred to in point (b) of the first 
subparagraph. 
4. 
The powers listed in paragraphs 1, 2 and 3 are without prejudice to Section 3. 
5. 
The measures taken by the Digital Services Coordinators in the exercise of their powers 
listed in paragraphs 1, 2 and 3 shall be effective, dissuasive and proportionate, having 
regard, in particular, to the nature, gravity, recurrence and duration of the infringement or 
suspected infringement to which those measures relate, as well as the economic, technical 
and operational capacity of the provider of the intermediary services concerned where 
relevant. 
 
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6. 
Member States shall ensure that any exercise of the powers pursuant to paragraphs 1, 2 and 
3 is subject to adequate safeguards laid down in the applicable national law in conformity 
compliance with the Charter and with the general principles of Union law. In particular, 
those measures shall only be taken in accordance with the right to respect for private life 
and the rights of defence, including the rights to be heard and of access to the file, and 
subject to the right to an effective judicial remedy of all affected parties. 
Article 42 
Penalties 
1. 
Member States shall lay down the rules on penalties applicable to infringements of this 
Regulation by providers of intermediary services under their jurisdiction and shall take all 
the necessary measures to ensure that they are implemented in accordance with Article 41. 
2. 
Penalties shall be effective, proportionate and dissuasive. Member States shall notify the 
Commission of those rules and of those measures and shall notify it, without delay, of any 
subsequent amendments affecting them. 
3. 
Member States shall ensure that the maximum amount of penalties imposed for a failure 
to comply with the any obligations laid down in this Regulation shall not be subject to a 
fine which shall not exceed 6 % of the annual income or turnover of the provider of 
intermediary services concerned in the preceding financial year. Penalties Fines for the 
supply of incorrect, incomplete or misleading information, failure to reply or rectify 
incorrect, incomplete or misleading information and failure to submit to an on site 
inspection shall not exceed 1% of the annual income or turnover of the provider or person 
concerned in the preceding financial year
4. 
Member States shall ensure that the maximum amount of a periodic penalty payment shall 
not exceed 5 % of the average daily turnover or income of the provider of intermediary 
services concerned in the preceding financial year per day, calculated from the date 
specified in the decision concerned. 
 
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Article 43 
Right to lodge a complaint 
Both Rrecipients of the service and their representative organisations shall have the right to 
lodge a complaint against providers of intermediary services alleging an infringement of this 
Regulation with the Digital Services Coordinator of the Member State where the recipient resides or 
is established. The Digital Services Coordinator shall assess the complaint and, where appropriate, 
transmit it to the Digital Services Coordinator of establishment, accompanied, where considered 
appropriate, by a possible opinion. Where the complaint falls under the responsibility of another 
competent authority in its Member State, the Digital Service Coordinator receiving the complaint 
shall transmit it to that authority. 
Article 44 
Activity reports 
1. 
Digital Services Coordinators shall draw up an annual report on theirir activities under this 
Regulation, including the number of complaints received pursuant to Article 43 and 
an overview of their follow-upThese reports may include information provided by 
national competent authorities, where applicable. The Digital Services Coordinators
shall make the annual reports available to the public, without prejudice to the applicable 
rules on confidential information, and shall communicate them to the Commission and to 
the Board. 
2. 
The annual report shall also include at least the following information: 
(a)  the number and subject matter of orders to act against illegal content and orders to 
provide information issued in accordance with Articles 8 and 9 by any national 
judicial or administrative authority of the Member State of the Digital Services 
Coordinator concerned; 
(b)  the effects given to those orders, as communicated to the Digital Services 
Coordinator pursuant to Articles 8 and 9. 
 
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3. 
Where a Member State has designated several competent authorities pursuant to Article 38, 
it shall ensure that the Digital Services Coordinator draws up a single report covering the 
activities of all competent authorities and that the Digital Services Coordinator receives all 
relevant information and support needed to that effect from the other competent authorities 
concerned. 
Article 44a 
Mutual assistance 
1. 
The Digital Services Coordinators and competent authorities, where applicable, shall 
provide each other with relevant information and mutual assistance in order to apply 
this Regulation in a consistent and efficient manner and shall put in place measures 
for effective cooperation with each other. Mutual assistance shall include, in 
particular, information exchanges in accordance with this Article and the duty of the 
Digital Services Coordinator of establishment to inform all other Digital Services 
Coordinators of destination, the Board and the Commission about the opening of an 
investigation and the intention to take a final decision in respect of a given provider of 
intermediary services. 
2. 
Where necessary to conduct an investigation and without prejudice to the possibility 
to directly launch a joint investigation pursuant to Article 46(1), the Digital Services 
Coordinator of establishment may request other Digital Services Coordinators to 
provide specific information in their possession as regards a specific provider of 
intermediary services or to exercise their investigatory powers pursuant to Article 
41(1) with regards to specific information located in their territory. Where 
appropriate, the Digital Services Coordinator receiving the request shall involve 
other competent national authorities. The Digital Services Coordinator receiving such 
request shall reply without undue delay and no later than one month after receiving 
the request. 
 
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3. 
Upon reasoned request of a Digital Services Coordinator of destination, a Digital 
Services Coordinator of establishment shall provide information already in its 
possession as regards specific activities of a given provider of a very large online 
platform or of a very large online search engine in that Member State, without undue 
delay and no later than within one month after receiving the request. The Digital 
Services Coordinator of destination may only issue such request when it justifies the 
specific circumstances showing that a potential infringement of this Regulation by 
that provider could raise a serious risk affecting public security, public order or 
public health of recipients of the service in its territory. Where appropriate, the 
Digital Services Coordinator receiving the request shall involve other competent 
national authorities. 
4. 
The requested Digital Services Coordinator shall comply with the requests pursuant 
to paragraph 2 or 3, unless: 
(a)  the scope of the subject matter of the request is not sufficiently specified; or 
(b)  neither the requested Digital Service Coordinator nor other national competent 
authority is in possession of the requested information nor has competence to 
request it; or 
(c)  compliance with the request would infringe Union or Member State law to 
which the competent authority receiving the request is subject to. 
 
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Article 45 
Cross-border cooperation among Digital Services Coordinators 
1. 
Where a Digital Services Coordinator of destination has reasons to suspect that a provider 
of an intermediary service, not under the jurisdiction of the Member State concerned, 
infringed this Regulation affecting recipients in its territory, it may shall request the 
Digital Services Coordinator of establishment to assess the matter and take the necessary 
investigatory and enforcement measures to ensure compliance with this Regulation. 
Upon request of at least three Digital Services Coordinators of destination alleging a 
reasonable suspicion of an infringement by a given provider of intermediary services 
affecting recipients in their territory, the Board Where the Board has reasons to suspect 
that a provider of intermediary services infringed this Regulation in a manner involving at 
least three Member States, it may recommend the Digital Services Coordinator of 
establishment to assess the matter and take the necessary investigatory and enforcement 
measures to ensure compliance with this Regulation. 
2. 
A request or recommendation pursuant to paragraph 1 shall at least indicate: 
(a)  the electronic point of contact of the provider of the intermediary services concerned 
as provided for in Article 10; 
(b)  a description of the relevant facts, the provisions of this Regulation concerned and 
the reasons why the Digital Services Coordinator that sent the request, or the Board, 
suspects that the provider infringed this Regulation; 
(c)  any other information that the Digital Services Coordinator that sent the request, or 
the Board, considers relevant, including, where appropriate, information gathered on 
its own initiative or suggestions for specific investigatory or enforcement measures 
to be taken, including interim measures. 
 
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3. 
The Digital Services Coordinator of establishment shall take into utmost account the 
request or recommendation pursuant to paragraph 1 of this Article. Where it considers that 
it has insufficient information to act upon the request or recommendation and has reasons 
to consider that the Digital Services Coordinator that sent the request, or the Board, could 
provide additional information, it may request such information in accordance with 
Article 44a or, alternatively, shall launch a joint investigation pursuant to Article 
46(1) involving at least the requesting Digital Services Coordinator. The time period 
laid down in paragraph 4 of this Article shall be suspended until that additional 
information is provided or the invitation to join the joint investigation is refused
4. 
The Digital Services Coordinator of establishment shall, without undue delay and in any 
event not later than two one months following receipt of the request or recommendation, 
communicate to the Digital Services Coordinator that sent the request, or the Board, its 
assessment of the suspected infringement, or that of any other competent authority 
pursuant to national law where relevant, and an explanation of any investigatory or 
enforcement measures taken or envisaged in relation thereto to ensure compliance with this 
Regulation. 
5. 
Where the Digital Services Coordinator that sent the request, or, where appropriate, the 
Board, did not receive a reply within the time period laid down in paragraph 4 or where it 
does not agree with the assessment of the Digital Services Coordinator of establishment, it 
may refer the matter to the Commission, providing all relevant information. That 
information shall include at least the request or recommendation sent to the Digital 
Services Coordinator of establishment, arguments on why it does not agree with the 
assessment of the Digital Services Coordinator of establishment, any additional 
information provided pursuant to paragraph 3 and the communication referred to in 
paragraph 4. 
6. 
The Commission shall assess the matter within three two months following the referral of 
the matter pursuant to paragraph 5, after having consulted the Digital Services Coordinator 
of establishment and, unless it referred the matter itself, the Board. 
 
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7. 
Where, pursuant to paragraph 6, the Commission concludes disagrees withthat the 
assessment or the investigatory or enforcement measures taken or envisaged pursuant to 
paragraph 4 because they are incompatible with this Regulation or insufficient to ensure 
its effective enforcement, it shall communicate its serious doubts to the concerned 
Digital Services Coordinators and the Board and request the Digital Service 
Coordinator of establishment to further assess the matter. The Digital Services 
Coordinator of establishment shall and take the necessary investigatory or enforcement 
measures to ensure compliance with this Regulation, taking into utmost account the 
serious doubts and request of the Commission, and to inform it about those measures 
taken within two months from that request, without prejudice to the possibility by the 
Commission to initiate proceedings upon expiry of such period pursuant to point a of 
Article 51(1) as regards alleged infringements of providers of very large online 
platforms or of very large online search engines
 
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Article 46 
Joint investigations and requests for Commission intervention 
1. 
The Digital Services Coordinator of establishment may invite other Digital Services 
Coordinator of destination, or other competent authorities where applicable, to set up 
a joint investigation to investigate an alleged infringement of this Regulation 
concerning a given provider of intermediary services in several Member States. Any 
DdDigital Services Coordinator of destination directly concerned by such alleged 
infringement and, where applicable, other competent authorities s may express an 
interest in participating participate in joint investigations proposed by the Digital 
Services Coordinator of establishment. The Digital Services Coordinator of 
establishment shall coordinate the joint investigation and shall agree with other 
participating competent authorities on a deadline for the conclusion of the joint 
investigation. Such deadline shall not exceed 3 months, unless all participating 
competent authorities agree to a longer timeline. When finalising the investigation, 
the Digital Services Coordinator of establishment shall take into account the views of 
participating competent authorities. Within 1 month from the conclusion of the joint 
investigation and taking into account its final findings, the Digital Services 
Coordinator of establishment shall communicate its preliminary position concerning 
the alleged infringement to all Digital Services Coordinators, the Commission and the 
Board, including, where applicable, the position on the enforcement measures to be 
adopted., which may be coordinated with the support of the Board, with regard to matters 
covered by this Regulation, concerning providers of intermediary services operating in 
several Member States. 
Such joint investigations are without prejudice to the tasks and powers of the participating 
Digital Coordinators and the requirements applicable to the performance of those tasks and 
exercise of those powers provided in this Regulation. The participating Digital Services 
Coordinators shall make the results of the joint investigations available to other Digital 
Services Coordinators, the Commission and the Board through the system provided for in 
Article 67 for the fulfilment of their respective tasks under this Regulation. 
 
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1a. 
The participating Digital Services Coordinators may refer the matter to the 
Commission pursuant to Article 45(5) where: 
(a)  a preliminary position pursuant to paragraph 1 of this Article is not 
communicated or 
b) 
they substantiate their disagreement with the preliminary position of the Digital 
Services Coordinator of establishment, taking into account all the information 
collected in the joint investigation. 
2. 
Upon request of at least three Digital Services Coordinators of destination alleging a 
reasonable suspicion of an infringement by a given provider of intermediary services 
affecting recipients of the service in their Member States, the Board may recommend 
the Digital Services Coordinator of establishment to launch and coordinate a joint 
investigation, which shall at least include the requesting Digital Services 
Coordinators. The Board shall propose a deadline by when the authorities involved 
shall conclude the joint investigation, which shall not exceed 3 months, unless all 
authorities involved agree to a longer timeline. When finalising the investigation, the 
Digital Services Coordinator of establishment shall take into account the views of 
participating competent authorities. Within 1 month from conclusion of the joint 
investigation and taking into account its final findings, the Digital Services 
Coordinator of establishment shall communicate its preliminary position concerning 
the alleged infringement to all Digital Services Coordinators, the Commission and the 
Board, including, where applicable, the position on the enforcement measures to be 
adopted. 
2a. 
The Board may refer the matter to the Commission pursuant to Article 45(5), where: 
a) 
the Digital Services Coordinator or, where applicable, other competent 
authorities of establishment refuse to launch the joint investigation; 
b) 
the Digital Services Coordinator of establishment fails to communicate the 
preliminary position pursuant to paragraph 2 of this Article; or 
c) 
the Board substantiates its disagreement with the preliminary position, taking 
into account all the information collected in the joint investigation. 
 
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3. 
In carrying on the joint investigation, the Digital Services Coordinators and, where 
applicable, other competent authorities participating in the joint investigation, shall 
cooperate closely under the coordination of the Digital Services Coordinator of 
establishment, taking into account the indications of the Board’s recommendation 
pursuant to paragraph 2, where applicable. Without prejudice to the powers of the 
Digital Services Coordinator of establishment, the Digital Services Coordinators of 
destination and, where applicable, other competent authorities participating in the 
joint investigation shall be entitled to exercise their investigatory powers pursuant to 
Article 41(1) in respect of the providers of intermediary services concerned by the 
alleged infringement, with regard to information and premises located within their 
territory. 
2. 
Where a Digital Services Coordinator of establishment has reasons to suspect that a very 
large online platform infringed this Regulation, it may request the Commission to take the 
necessary investigatory and enforcement measures to ensure compliance with this 
Regulation in accordance with Section 3. Such a request shall contain all information listed 
in Article 45(2) and set out the reasons for requesting the Commission to intervene. If the 
Commission intends to initiate proceedings pursuant to Article 51, it shall 
communicate it to the Digital Services Coordinator of establishment within three 
months upon the receipt of the request. 
 
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Article 46a  
Joint investigations related to a provider of a very large online platform  
or of a very large online search engine 
1. 
Upon request of at least three Digital Services Coordinators of destination alleging a 
reasonable suspicion that an infringement by a provider of a very large online 
platform or of a very large online search engine affects a large number of recipients 
of the service in those Member States, the Board may recommend to the Commission 
to launch a joint investigation. Pursuant to such recommendation, the Commission 
may, by its decision, set up a joint investigation to be coordinated by the Digital 
Services Coordinator of establishment and involving the requesting Digital Services 
Coordinators and, where applicable, any other competent authority in the concerned 
Member States within 1 month. 
2. 
The Digital Services Coordinators and, where applicable, other competent authorities 
participating in the joint investigation, shall cooperate closely under the coordination 
of the Digital Services Coordinator of establishment and in accordance with the 
indications of the Commission. Without prejudice to the powers of the Digital 
Services Coordinator of establishment, the Digital Services Coordinators of 
destination and, where applicable, other competent authorities participating in the 
joint investigation shall be entitled to exercise their investigatory powers pursuant to 
Article 41(1) in respect of the provider of intermediary services concerned by the 
alleged infringement, with regard to information and premises located within its 
territory. 
3. 
The Commission decision shall define a deadline by when all authorities involved 
shall conclude the joint investigation which shall not exceed 3 months. When 
finalising the investigation, the Digital Services Coordinator of establishment shall 
take into account the views of participating competent authorities. Within one month 
from conclusion of the joint investigation and taking into account its final findings, 
the Digital Services Coordinator of establishment shall communicate its preliminary 
position concerning the alleged infringement to all Digital Services Coordinators, the 
Commission and the Board, including, where applicable, the position on the 
enforcement measures to be adopted. 
 
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If the Digital Services Coordinator of establishment fails to communicate its 
preliminary position pursuant to paragraph 2 of this Article or if the Commission 
disagrees with that preliminary position because it is incompatible with this 
Regulation or insufficient to ensure its effective enforcement, the Commission may, 
within 1 month from the preliminary position pursuant to paragraph 3 of this Article, 
communicate its serious doubts and request the Digital Service Coordinator of 
establishment to further assess the matter pursuant to Article 45(7). 
Article 46b 
Request for Commission intervention 
Where a Digital Services Coordinator of establishment has reasons to suspect that a provider 
of a very large online platform or of a very large online search engine infringed this 
Regulation, it may request the Commission to take necessary investigatory and enforcement 
measures to ensure compliance with this Regulation in accordance with Section 3 of this 
Chapter. Upon the request of at least three Digital Services Coordinators alleging a 
reasonable suspicion that an infringement by a provider of a very large online platform or of 
a very large online search engine may cause a serious harm to a large number of recipients of 
the service in those Member States, the Board may also recommend the Commission to take 
the necessary investigatory and enforcement measures to ensure compliance with this 
Regulation in accordance with Section 3 of this Chapter. 
Such a request or recommendation pursuant to the first subaragraph shall contain all 
information listed in Article 45(2) and set out the reasons for requesting the Commission to 
intervene. If the Commission intends to initiate proceedings pursuant to Article 51, it shall 
communicate this to the Digital Services Coordinator of establishment within three months 
upon the receipt of the request. 
 
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SECTION 2 
EUROPEAN BOARD FOR DIGITAL SERVICES 
Article 47 
European Board for Digital Services 
1. 
An independent advisory group of Digital Services Coordinators on the supervision of 
providers of intermediary services named ‘European Board for Digital Services’ (the 
‘Board’) is established. 
2. 
The Board shall advise the Digital Services Coordinators and the Commission in 
accordance with this Regulation to achieve the following objectives: 
(a)  Contributing to the consistent application of this Regulation and effective 
cooperation of the Digital Services Coordinators and the Commission with regard to 
matters covered by this Regulation; 
(b)  coordinating and contributing to guidance and analysis of the Commission and 
Digital Services Coordinators and other competent authorities on emerging issues 
across the internal market with regard to matters covered by this Regulation; 
(c)  assisting the Digital Services Coordinators and the Commission in the supervision of 
very large online platforms. 
 
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Article 48 
Structure of the Board 
1. 
The Board shall be composed of the Digital Services Coordinators, who shall be 
represented by high-level officials. Where provided for by national law, other competent 
authorities entrusted with specific operational responsibilities for the application and 
enforcement of this Regulation alongside the Digital Services Coordinator shall participate 
in the Board. Other national authorities may be invited to the meetings, where the issues 
discussed are of relevance for them. 
2. 
Each Member State shall have one vote. The Commission shall not have voting rights. 
The Board shall adopt its acts by simple majority. 
3. 
The Board shall be chaired by the Commission. The Commission shall convene the 
meetings and prepare the agenda in accordance the tasks of the Board pursuant to this 
Regulation and with its rules of procedure. 
4. 
The Commission shall provide administrative and analytical support for the activities of 
the Board pursuant to this Regulation. 
5. 
The Board may invite experts and observers to attend its meetings, and may cooperate with 
other Union bodies, offices, agencies and advisory groups, as well as external experts as 
appropriate. The Board shall make the results of this cooperation publicly available. 
6. 
The Board shall adopt its rules of procedure, following the consent of the Commission. 
 
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Article 49 
Tasks of the Board 
1. 
Where necessary to meet the objectives set out in Article 47(2), the Board shall in 
particular: 
(a)  support the coordination of joint investigations; 
(b)  support the competent authorities in the analysis of reports and results of audits of 
very large online platforms or of very large online search engines to be transmitted 
pursuant to this Regulation; 
(c)  issue opinions, recommendations or advice to Digital Services Coordinators in 
accordance with this Regulation; 
(d)  advise the Commission to take the measures referred to in Article 51 and, where 
requested by the Commission, adopt opinions on draft Commission measures 
concerning very large online platforms or very large online search engines in 
accordance with this Regulation; 
(e)  support and promote the development and implementation of European standards, 
guidelines, reports, templates and code of conducts as provided for in this 
Regulation, as well as the identification of emerging issues, with regard to matters 
covered by this Regulation. 
2. 
Digital Services Coordinators and other national competent authorities that do not follow 
the opinions, requests or recommendations addressed to them adopted by the Board shall 
provide the reasons for this choice when reporting pursuant to this Regulation or when 
adopting their relevant decisions, as appropriate. 
 
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SECTION 3 
SUPERVISION, INVESTIGATION, ENFORCEMENT AND MONITORING IN RESPECT OF 
VERY LARGE ONLINE PLATFORMS OR VERY LARGE ONLINE SEARCH ENGINES 
Article 50 
Enhanced supervision for very large online platforms or very large online search engine for 
compliance with Section 4 of Chapter III 
1. 
Where the Digital Services Coordinator of establishment adopts a decision finding that a 
provider of very large online platform has infringed any of the provisions of Section 4 of 
Chapter III, it shall make use of the enhanced supervision system laid down in this Article. 
It shall take utmost account of any opinion and recommendation of the Commission and 
the Board pursuant to this Article. 
The Commission acting on its own initiative, or following a recommendation of the 
Board acting on its own initiative or upon request of at least three Digital Services 
Coordinators of destination, may, where it has reasons to suspect that a provider of a very 
large online platform or of a very large online search engine infringed any of thethose 
provisions of Section 4 of Chapter III, recommend the Digital Services Coordinator of 
establishment to investigate the suspected infringement with a view to that Digital Services 
Coordinator adopting such a decision pursuant to the second subparagraph within a 
reasonable time period within a time period predefined in the recommendation. Where 
the Digital Services Coordinator of establishment does not adopt a decision pursuant 
to the second subparagraph within the recommended time period, the Commission 
may initiate proceedings pursuant to Article 51 with a view to establish the 
infringement and request the provider of a very large online platform or of a very 
large online search engine to draw up and communicate an action plan pursuant to 
paragraph 2 of this Article. 
 
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Where the Digital Services Coordinator of establishment, upon its own initiative or 
following a recommendation of the Commission pursuant to the first suparagraph, 
adopts a decision finding that a provider of a very large online platform or of a very 
large online search engine has infringed any of the provisions of Section 4 of Chapter 
III, it shall make use of the enhanced supervision system laid down in this Article. It 
shall take utmost account of any opinion and recommendation of the Commission and 
the Board pursuant to this Article. 
Where other competent authorities in that Member State are empowered to establish 
the existence of an infringement and to ensure the enhanced supervision in respect of 
a given provider of a very large online platform or of a very large online search 
engine, the Digital Services Coordinator of establishment shall involve them in 
accordance with the applicable national law. 
2. 
When communicating the decision referred to in the first subparagraph of paragraph 1 to 
the provider of the a very large online platform or of a very large online search engine 
concerned, the Digital Services Coordinator of establishment or, where applicable, the 
Commission shall request it the provider to draw up and communicate to the Digital 
Services Coordinator of establishment, the Commission and the Board, within one month 
from that decision, an action plan, specifying how that platform provider intends to 
terminate or remedy the infringement. The measures set out in the action plan shall 
include a commitment to complete an independent audit on the effectiveness of the 
poposed measures within 2 months of the adoption of the decision pursuant to 
paragraph 3, with the identity of the proposed auditors and the methodology of the 
audit spelled out in the action plan. The measures set out in the action plan may also 
include, where appropriate, participation in a code of conduct as provided for in Article 35. 
 
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3. 
Within one month following receipt of the action plan, the Board shall communicate its 
opinion on the action plan to the Digital Services Coordinator of establishment. Within one 
month following receipt of that opinion, that Digital Services Coordinator shall decide 
whether the action plan is appropriate to terminate or remedy the infringement. The 
adherence to relevant codes of conduct shall be taken into account in this decision. 
Where the Digital Services Coordinator of establishment has concerns on the ability of the 
measures to terminate or remedy the infringement, it may request the very large online 
platform concerned to subject itself to an additional, independent audit to assess the 
effectiveness of those measures in terminating or remedying the infringement. In that case, 
that platform shall send the audit report to that Digital Services Coordinator, the 
Commission and the Board within four months from the decision referred to in the first 
subparagraph. When requesting such an additional audit, the Digital Services Coordinator 
may specify a particular audit organisation that is to carry out the audit, at the expense of 
the platform concerned, selected on the basis of criteria set out in Article 28(2). 
4. 
The Digital Services Coordinator of establishment shall communicate to the Commission, 
the Board and the provider of the very large online platform or of very large online 
search engine concerned its views as to whether the provider of very large online 
platform or of a very large online search engine has terminated or remedied the 
infringement and the reasons thereof. It shall do so within the following time periods, as 
applicable: 
 
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(a)  within one month from the receipt of the audit report referred to in the second 
subparagraph of paragraph 3, where such an audit was performed; 
(a)  at the same time as the decision adopted pursuant to paragraph 3, where it does 
not consider the action plan appropriate to terminate or remedy the 
infringement; 
(b)  within three months from the decision on the action plan referred to in the first 
subparagraph of paragraph 3, where the action plan was considered appropriate 
to terminate or remedy the infringement, where no such audit was performed; 
(c)  immediately upon the expiry of the time period set out in paragraph 2, where that 
platform provider failed to communicate the action plan within that time period. 
Pursuant to that communication, the Digital Services Coordinator of establishment shall no 
longer be entitled to take any investigatory or enforcement measures in respect of the 
relevant conduct by the very large online platform concerned, without prejudice to Article 
66 or any other measures that it may take at the request of the Commission. 
 
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Article 51 
Intervention by the Commission and oOpening of proceedings by the Commission 
1. 
The Commission, acting either upon the Board’s recommendation or on its own initiative 
after consulting the Board, may initiate proceedings in view of the possible adoption of 
decisions pursuant to Articles 58 and 59 in respect of the relevant conduct by the provider 
of the very large online platform or of the very large online search engine that: 
(a)  is suspected of having infringed any of the provisions of this Regulation and the 
Digital Services Coordinator of establishment did not take the necessaryany 
investigatory or enforcement measures, pursuant to the request of the Commission 
referred to in Article 45(7), upon the expiry of the time period set in that request; 
(b)  is suspected of having infringed any of the provisions of this Regulation and the 
Digital Services Coordinator of establishment or the Board requested the 
Commission to intervene in accordance with Article 46b(2), upon the reception of 
that request; 
(ba)  is suspected of having infringed any of the provisions of Section 4 of Chapter III 
of this Regulation and no decision has been adopted by the Digital Services 
Coordinator of establishment within the recommended deadline pursuant to the 
second subparagraph of Article 50(1); 
(c)  has been found to have infringed any of the provisions of Section 4 of Chapter III, 
upon the expiry of the relevant time periods for the communication referred to in 
Article 50(4). 
2. 
Where the Commission decides to initiate proceedings pursuant to paragraph 1, it shall 
notify all Digital Services Coordinators, the Board and the provider of the very large 
online platform or of a very large online search engine concerned. 
 
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As regards points (a) and (b) of paragraph 1, pPursuant to that notification, the Digital 
Services Coordinator of establishment concerned shall no longer be entitled to take any 
investigatory or enforcement measures in respect of the relevant conduct by the provider 
of the very large online platform or of the very large online search engine concerned, 
without prejudice to Article 66 or any other measures that it, may take at the request of the 
Commission. The Commission shall inform the Digital Services Coordinator of 
establishment of its intention to exercise the powers referred to in Articles 52 to 57 
and of its preliminary findings pursuant to Article 63(1). 
3. 
The Digital Services Coordinator of establishment, referred to in Articles 45(7), 46(2) and 
50(1), as applicable, shall, without undue delay upon being informed, transmit to the 
Commission: 
(a)  any information that that Digital Services Coordinator, and any other competent 
authority in that Member State where applicable, exchanged relating to the 
infringement or the suspected infringement, as applicable, with the Board and with 
the provider of the very large online platform or of the very large online search 
engine concerned; 
(b)  the case file of that Digital Services Coordinator, and of any other competent 
authority in that Member State where applicable, relating to the infringement or 
the suspected infringement, as applicable; 
(c)  any other information in the possession of that Digital Services Coordinator, and of 
any other competent authority in that Member State where applicable, that may 
be relevant to the proceedings initiated by the Commission. 
4. 
The Board, and the Digital Services Coordinators making the request referred to in Article 
45(1) and 46(3), shall, without undue delay upon being informed, transmit to the 
Commission any information in their possession, or in the possession of any other 
competent authority in that Member State, that may be relevant to the proceedings 
initiated by the Commission. 
 
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Article 52 
Requests for information 
1. 
In order to carry out the tasks assigned to it under this Section, the Commission may by 
simple request or by decision require the provider of the very large online platforms or of 
very large online search engine concerned, as well as any other natural or legal persons 
acting for purposes related to their trade, business, craft or profession that may be 
reasonably be aware of information relating to the suspected infringement or the 
infringement, as applicable, including organisations performing the audits referred to in 
Articles 28 and 50(3), to provide such information within a reasonable time period. 
2. 
When sending a simple request for information to the provider of the very large online 
platform or of very large online search engine concerned or other person referred to in 
paragraph Article 52(1 of this Article), the Commission shall state the legal basis and the 
purpose of the request, specify what information is required and set the time period within 
which the information is to be provided, and the penalties fines provided for in Article 59 
for supplying incorrect or misleading information. 
3. 
Where the Commission requires the provider of the very large online platform or of very 
large online search engine concerned or other person referred to in paragraph Article 
52(1 of this Article) to supply information by decision, it shall state the legal basis and the 
purpose of the request, specify what information is required and set the time period within 
which it is to be provided. It shall also indicate the penalties fines provided for in Article 
59 and indicate or impose the periodic penalty payments provided for in Article 60. It shall 
further indicate the right to have the decision reviewed by the Court of Justice of the 
European Union. 
 
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4. 
The owners of the very large online platform or of the very large online search engine 
concerned or other person referred to in Article 52(paragraph 1) or their representatives 
and, in the case of legal persons, companies or firms, or where they have no legal 
personality, the persons authorised to represent them by law or by their constitution shall 
supply the information requested on behalf of the provider of the very large online 
platform or of the very large online search engine concerned or other person referred to 
in Article 52(paragraph 1). Lawyers duly authorised to act may supply the information on 
behalf of their clients. The latter shall remain fully responsible if the information supplied 
is incomplete, incorrect or misleading. 
5. 
At the request of the Commission, the Digital Services Coordinators and other competent 
authorities shall provide the Commission with all necessary information to carry out the 
tasks assigned to it under this Section. 
Article 53 
Power to take interviews and statements 
1. 
In order to carry out the tasks assigned to it under this Section, the Commission may 
interview any natural or legal person which consents to being interviewed for the purpose 
of collecting information, relating to the subject-matter of an investigation, in relation to 
the suspected infringement or infringement, as applicable. The Commission shall be 
entitled to record such interview by any technical means. 
2. 
Where an interview pursuant to paragraph 1 is conducted on the premises of an 
undertaking, the Commission shall inform the Digital Services Coordinator in the 
territory of which the interview takes place. If so requested by the said Digital 
Services Coordinator, its officials may assist the officials and other accompanying 
persons authorised by the Commission to conduct the interview. 
 
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Article 54 
Power to conduct on site inspections 
1. 
In order to carry out the tasks assigned to it under this Section, the Commission may 
conduct all necessary on site inspections at the premises of the provider of the very large 
online platform or of the very large online search engine concerned or other person 
referred to in Article 52(1). 
1a. 
The officials and other accompanying persons authorised by the Commission to 
conduct an inspection are empowered: 
(a)  to enter any premises, land and means of transport of undertakings and 
associations of undertakings; 
(b)  to examine the books and other records related to the business, irrespective of 
the medium on which they are stored; 
(c)  to take or obtain in any form copies of or extracts from such books or records; 
(d)  to require the undertaking or association of undertakings to provide access to 
and explanations on its organisation, functioning, IT system, algorithms, data-
handling and business practices and to record or document the explanations 
given; 
(e)  to seal any business premises and books or records for the period and to the 
extent necessary for the inspection; 
(f) 
to ask any representative or member of staff of the undertaking or association 
of undertakings for explanations on facts or documents relating to the subject-
matter and purpose of the inspection and to record the answers; 
(g)  to address questions to any representative or member of staff relating to the 
subject-matter and purpose of the inspection and to record the answers. 
 
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2. 
On site iInspections may also be carried out with the assistance of auditors or experts 
appointed by the Commission pursuant to Article 57(2), as well as with the competent 
national authoritiesy of the Member State in whose the territory of which the 
inspection is to be conducted. 
3. 
During on site inspections the Commission, and auditors andor experts appointed by the 
Commissionit, as well as the competent national authoritiesy of the Member State in whose 
the territory of which the inspection is to be conducted may require the provider of the 
very large online platform or of the very large online search engine concerned or other 
person referred to in Article 52(1) to provide explanations on its organisation, functioning, 
IT system, algorithms, data-handling and business conducts. The Commission and auditors 
or experts appointed by it may address questions to key personnel of the provider of the 
very large online platform or of the very large online search engine concerned or other 
person referred to in Article 52(1). 
4. 
The provider of the very large online platform or of the very large online search engine 
concerned or other natural or legal person referred to in Article 52(1) is required to 
submit to an on site inspection ordered by decision of the Commission. The decision shall 
specify the subject matter and purpose of the visit, set the date on which it is to begin and 
indicate the penalties provided for in Articles 59 and 60 and the right to have the decision 
reviewed by the Court of Justice of the European Union. The Commission shall take such 
decisions after consulting the Digital Services Coordination of establishment in the 
territory of which the inspection is to be conducted. 
5. 
Officials of as well as those authorised or appointed by the Digital Services 
Coordinator in the territory of which the inspection is to be conducted shall, at the 
request of that authority or of the Commission, actively assist the officials and other 
accompanying persons authorised by the Commission. To this end, they shall enjoy 
the powers specified in paragraph 1a. 
 
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6. 
Where the officials and other accompanying persons authorised by the Commission 
find that an undertaking opposes an inspection ordered pursuant to this Article, the 
Member State concerned shall afford them the necessary assistance, requesting where 
appropriate the assistance of the police or of an equivalent enforcement authority, so 
as to enable them to conduct their inspection. 
7. 
If the assistance provided for in paragraph 6 requires authorisation from a judicial 
authority according to national rules, such authorisation shall be applied for. Such 
authorisation may also be applied for as a precautionary measure. 
8. 
Where authorisation as referred to in paragraph 7 is applied for, the national judicial 
authority shall control that the Commission decision is authentic and that the 
coercive measures envisaged are neither arbitrary nor excessive having regard to the 
subject matter of the inspection. In its control of the proportionality of the coercive 
measures, the national judicial authority may ask the Commission, directly or 
through the Digital Services Coordinators, for detailed explanations in particular on 
the grounds the Commission has for suspecting infringement of this Regulation, as 
well as on the seriousness of the suspected infringement and on the nature of the 
involvement of the undertaking concerned. However, the national judicial authority 
may not call into question the necessity for the inspection nor demand that it be 
provided with the information in the file of the Commission. The lawfulness of the 
Commission decision shall be subject to review only by the Court of Justice of the 
European Union 
 
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Article 55 
Interim measures 
1. 
In the context of proceedings which may lead to the adoption of a decision of non-
compliance pursuant to Article 58(1), where there is an urgency due to the risk of serious 
damage for the recipients of the service, the Commission may, by decision, order interim 
measures against the provider of the very large online platform or of the very large 
online search engine concerned on the basis of a prima facie finding of an infringement. 
2. 
A decision under paragraph 1 shall apply for a specified period of time and may be 
renewed in so far this is necessary and appropriate. 
Article 56 
Commitments 
1. 
If, during proceedings under this Section, the provider of the very large online platform or 
of the very large online search engine concerned offers commitments to ensure 
compliance with the relevant provisions of this Regulation, the Commission may by 
decision make those commitments binding on the provider of the very large online 
platform or of the very large online search engine concerned and declare that there are 
no further grounds for action. 
2. 
The Commission may, upon request or on its own initiative, reopen the proceedings: 
(a)  where there has been a material change in any of the facts on which the decision was 
based; 
(b)  where the provider of the very large online platform or of the very large online 
search engine concerned acts contrary to its commitments; or 
(c)  where the decision was based on incomplete, incorrect or misleading information 
provided by the provider of the very large online platform or of the very large 
online search engine concerned or other person referred to in Article 52(1). 
 
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3. 
Where the Commission considers that the commitments offered by the provider of the 
very large online platform or of the very large online search engine concerned are unable 
to ensure effective compliance with the relevant provisions of this Regulation, it shall 
reject those commitments in a reasoned decision when concluding the proceedings. 
Article 57 
Monitoring actions 
1. 
For the purposes of carrying out the tasks assigned to it under this Section, the Commission 
may take the necessary actions to monitor the effective implementation and compliance 
with this Regulation by the provider of the very large online platform or of the very large 
online search engine concerned. The Commission may also order that platform provider 
to provide access to, and explanations relating to, its databases and algorithms. These 
actions may include in particular the imposition of an obligation on the provider of 
the very large online platform or of the very large online search engine to retain all 
documents deemed to be relevant to assess the provider's implementation of and 
compliance with these obligations and decisions. 
2. 
The actions pursuant to paragraph 1 may include the appointment of independent external 
experts and auditors, including as well as from competent national authorities, to assist 
the Commission in monitoring compliance with the relevant provisions of this Regulation 
and to provide specific expertise or knowledge to the Commission. 
 
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Article 58 
Non-compliance 
1. 
The Commission shall adopt a non-compliance decision where it finds that the provider of 
the very large online platform or of the very large online search engine concerned does 
not comply with one or more of the following: 
(a)  the relevant provisions of this Regulation; 
(b)  interim measures ordered pursuant to Article 55; 
(c)  commitments made binding pursuant to Article 56.
2. 
Before adopting the decision pursuant to paragraph 1, the Commission shall communicate 
its preliminary findings to the provider of the very large online platform or of the very 
large online search engine concerned. In the preliminary findings, the Commission shall 
explain the measures that it considers taking, or that it considers that the provider of the 
very large online platform or of the very large online search engine concerned should 
take, in order to effectively address the preliminary findings. 
3. 
In the decision adopted pursuant to paragraph 1 the Commission shall order the provider 
of the very large online platform or of the very large online search engine concerned to 
take the necessary measures to ensure compliance with the decision pursuant to paragraph 
1 within a reasonable time period and to provide information on the measures that that 
platform intends to take to comply with the decision. 
4. 
The provider of the very large online platform or of the very large online search engine 
concerned shall provide the Commission with a description of the measures it has taken to 
ensure compliance with the decision pursuant to paragraph 1 upon their implementation. 
5. 
Where the Commission finds that the conditions of paragraph 1 are not met, it shall close 
the investigation by a decision. 
 
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Article 59 
Fines 
1. 
In the decision pursuant to Article 58, the Commission may impose on the provider of the 
very large online platform or of the very large online search engine concerned fines not 
exceeding 6% of its total worldwide turnover in the preceding financial year where it finds 
that that platform provider, intentionally or negligently: 
(a)  infringes the relevant provisions of this Regulation; 
(b)  fails to comply with a decision ordering interim measures under Article 55; or 
(c)  fails to comply with a voluntary measurecommitment made binding by a decision 
pursuant to Articles 56;. 
(d)  fails to comply with the measures adopted by the Commission pursuant to 
Article 57; or 
(e)  fails to comply with the conditions for access to the Commission’s file pursuant 
to Article 63(4). 
2. 
The Commission may by decision impose on the provider of the very large online 
platform or of the very large online search engine concerned or other natural or legal 
person referred to in Article 52(1) fines not exceeding 1 % of the total turnover in the 
preceding financial year, where they intentionally or negligently: 
 
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(a)  fail to supply information or supply incorrect, incomplete or misleading 
information in response to a request pursuant to Article 52or, 
(aa)  when the information is requested by decision, fail to reply to the request for 
information by decision within the set time period; 
(b)  fail to rectify within the time period set by the Commission, incorrect, incomplete or 
misleading information given by a member of staff, or fail or refuse to provide 
complete information; 
(c)  refuse to submit to an on site inspection pursuant to Article 54. 
3. 
Before adopting the decision pursuant to paragraph 2, the Commission shall communicate 
its preliminary findings to the provider of the very large online platform or of the very 
large online search engine concerned or other person referred to in Article 52(1). 
4. 
In fixing the amount of the fine, the Commission shall have regard to the nature, gravity, 
duration and recurrence of the infringement and, for fines imposed pursuant to paragraph 
2, the delay caused to the proceedings. 
 
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Article 60 
Periodic penalty payments 
1. 
The Commission may, by decision, impose on the provider of the very large online 
platform or of the very large online search engine concerned or other person referred to 
in Article 52(1), as applicable, periodic penalty payments not exceeding 5 % of the average 
daily income or worldwide turnover in the preceding financial year per day, calculated 
from the date appointed by the decision, in order to compel them to: 
(a)  supply correct and complete information in response to a decision requiring 
information pursuant to Article 52; 
(b)  submit to an on site inspection which it has ordered by decision pursuant to Article 
54; 
(c)  comply with a decision ordering interim measures pursuant to Article 55(1); 
(d)  comply with commitments made legally binding by a decision pursuant to Article 
56(1); 
(e)  comply with a decision pursuant to Article 58(1). 
2. 
Where the provider of the very large online platform or of the very large online search 
engine concerned or other person referred to in Article 52(1) has satisfied the obligation 
which the periodic penalty payment was intended to enforce, the Commission may fix the 
definitive amount of the periodic penalty payment at a figure lower than that which would 
arise under the original decision. 
 
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Article 61 
Limitation period for the imposition of penalties 
1. 
The powers conferred on the Commission by Articles 59 and 60 shall be subject to a 
limitation period of five years. 
2. 
Time shall begin to run on the day on which the infringement is committed. However, in 
the case of continuing or repeated infringements, time shall begin to run on the day on 
which the infringement ceases. 
3. 
Any action taken by the Commission or by the Digital Services Coordinator for the 
purpose of the investigation or proceedings in respect of an infringement shall interrupt the 
limitation period for the imposition of fines or periodic penalty payments. Actions which 
interrupt the limitation period shall include, in particular, the following: 
(a)  requests for information by the Commission or by a Digital Services Coordinator; 
(b)  on site inspection; 
(c)  the opening of a proceeding by the Commission pursuant to Article 51(2). 
4. 
Each interruption shall start time running afresh. However, the limitation period for the 
imposition of fines or periodic penalty payments shall expire at the latest on the day on 
which a period equal to twice the limitation period has elapsed without the Commission 
having imposed a fine or a periodic penalty payment. That period shall be extended by the 
time during which the limitation period is suspended pursuant to paragraph 5. 
5. 
The limitation period for the imposition of fines or periodic penalty payments shall be 
suspended for as long as the decision of the Commission is the subject of proceedings 
pending before the Court of Justice of the European Union. 
 
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Article 62 
Limitation period for the enforcement of penalties 
1. 
The power of the Commission to enforce decisions taken pursuant to Articles 59 and 60 
shall be subject to a limitation period of five years. 
2. 
Time shall begin to run on the day on which the decision becomes final. 
3. 
The limitation period for the enforcement of penalties shall be interrupted: 
(a)  by notification of a decision varying the original amount of the fine or periodic 
penalty payment or refusing an application for variation; 
(b)  by any action of the Commission, or of a Member State acting at the request of the 
Commission, designed to enforce payment of the fine or periodic penalty payment. 
4. 
Each interruption shall start time running afresh. 
5. 
The limitation period for the enforcement of penalties shall be suspended for so long as: 
(a)  time to pay is allowed; 
(b)  enforcement of payment is suspended pursuant to a decision of the Court of Justice 
of the European Union or to a decision by the national court
Article 63 
Right to be heard and access to the file 
1. 
Before adopting a decision pursuant to Articles 58(1), 59 or 60, the Commission shall give 
the provider of the very large online platform or of the very large online search engine 
concerned or other person referred to in Article 52(1) the opportunity of being heard on: 
(a)  preliminary findings of the Commission, including any matter to which the 
Commission has taken objections; and 
 
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(b)  measures that the Commission may intend to take in view of the preliminary findings 
referred to point (a). 
2. 
The provider of the very large online platform or of the very large online search engine 
concerned or other person referred to in Article 52(1) and any natural or legal person 
who applies to be heard and shows a legitimate interest may submit their observations 
on the Commission’s preliminary findings within a reasonable time period set by the 
Commission in its preliminary findings, which may not be less than 14 days. 
3. 
The Commission shall base its decisions only on objections on which the parties concerned 
have been able to comment. 
4. 
The rights of defence of the parties concerned shall be fully respected in the proceedings. 
They shall be entitled to have access to the Commission's file under the terms of a 
negotiated disclosure, subject to the legitimate interest of the provider of the very large 
online platform or of the very large online search engine concerned or other person 
referred to in Article 52(1) in the protection of their business secrets. The Commission 
shall have the power to issue decisions setting out such terms of disclosure in case of 
disagreement between the parties. The right of access to the file of the Commission 
shall not extend to confidential information and internal documents of the Commission or 
Member States’ authorities. In particular, the right of access shall not extend to 
correspondence between the Commission and those authorities. Nothing in this paragraph 
shall prevent the Commission from disclosing and using information necessary to prove an 
infringement. 
5. 
The information collected pursuant to Articles 52, 53 and 54 shall be used only for the 
purpose of this Regulation. 
 
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6. 
Without prejudice to the exchange and to the use of information referred to in Articles 
51(3) and 52(5), the Commission, the Board, Member States’ authorities and their 
respective officials, servants and other persons working under their supervision,; and any 
other natural or legal person involved, including auditors and experts appointed pursuant to 
Article 57(2) shall not disclose information acquired or exchanged by them pursuant to this 
Section and of the kind covered by the obligation of professional secrecy.[moved to Article 
66a] 
Article 64 
Publication of decisions 
1. 
The Commission shall publish the decisions it adopts pursuant to Articles 55(1), 56(1), 58, 
59 and 60. Such publication shall state the names of the parties and the main content of the 
decision, including any penalties imposed. 
2. 
The publication shall have regard to the rights and legitimate interests of the provider of 
the very large online platform concerned, any other person referred to in Article 52(1) and 
any third parties in the protection of their confidential information. 
Article 64a 
Review by the Court of Justice of the European Union 
In accordance with Article 261 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, the 
Court of Justice of the European Union has unlimited jurisdiction to review decisions by 
which the Commission has imposed fines or periodic penalty payments. It may cancel, reduce 
or increase the fine or periodic penalty payment imposed. 
 
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Article 65 
Requests for access restrictions and cooperation with national courts 
1. 
Where all powers pursuant to this Article to bring about the cessation of an infringement of 
this Regulation have been exhausted, the infringement persists and causes serious harm 
which cannot be avoided through the exercise of other powers available under Union or 
national law, the Commission may request the Digital Services Coordinator of 
establishment of the provider of the very large online platform or of the very large 
online search engine concerned to act pursuant to Article 41(3). 
Prior to making such request to the Digital Services Coordinator, the Commission shall 
invite interested parties to submit written observations within a time period that shall not 
be less than two weeks, describing the measures it intends to request and identifying the 
intended addressee or addressees thereof. 
2. 
Where the coherent application of this Regulation so requires, the Commission, acting on 
its own initiative, may submit written observations to the competent judicial authority 
referred to Article 41(3). With the permission of the judicial authority in question, it may 
also make oral observations. 
For the purpose of the preparation of its observations only, the Commission may request 
that judicial authority to transmit or ensure the transmission to it of any documents 
necessary for the assessment of the case. 
 
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Article 66 
Implementing acts relating to Commission intervention 
1. 
In relation to the Commission intervention covered by this Section, the Commission may 
adopt implementing acts concerning the practical arrangements for: 
(ac)  the proceedings pursuant to Articles 54 and 57; 
(ba)  the hearings provided for in Article 63; 
(cb)  the negotiated disclosure of information provided for in Article 63. 
2. 
Those implementing acts shall be adopted in accordance with the advisory procedure 
referred to in Article 70. Before the adoption of any measures pursuant to paragraph 1, the 
Commission shall publish a draft thereof and invite all interested parties to submit their 
comments within the time period set out therein, which shall not be less than one month. 
Article 66a 
Professional secrecy [moved from Article 63(6)] 
Without prejudice to the exchange and to the use of information referred to in this ChapterArticles 
51(3) and 52(5), the Commission, the Board, Member States’ competent authorities and their 
respective officials, servants and other persons working under their supervision, and any other 
natural or legal person involved, including auditors and experts appointed pursuant to Article 57(2), 
shall not disclose information acquired or exchanged by them pursuant to this Section Regulation 
and of the kind covered by the obligation of professional secrecy. 
 
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SECTION 4 
COMMON PROVISIONS ON ENFORCEMENT 
Article 67 
Information sharing system 
1. 
The Commission shall establish and maintain a reliable and secure information sharing 
system supporting communications between Digital Services Coordinators, the 
Commission and the Board. Other competent authorities may be granted access to this 
system, where appropriate for the exercise of the tasks conferred to them in 
accordance with this Regulation. 
2. 
The Digital Services Coordinators, the Commission and the Board shall use the 
information sharing system for all communications pursuant to this Regulation. 
3. 
The Commission shall adopt implementing acts laying down the practical and operational 
arrangements for the functioning of the information sharing system and its interoperability 
with other relevant systems. Those implementing acts shall be adopted in accordance with 
the advisory procedure referred to in Article 70. 
 
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Article 68 
Representation 
Without prejudice to Directive 2020/1828XX/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council52
recipients of intermediary services shall have the right to mandate a body, organisation or 
association to exercise the rights conferred by this Regulation referred to in Articles 17, 18 and 19 
on their behalf, provided the body, organisation or association meets all of the following conditions: 
(a) 
it operates on a not-for-profit basis; 
(b) 
it has been properly constituted in accordance with the law of a Member State; 
(c) 
its statutory objectives include a legitimate interest in ensuring that this Regulation is 
complied with. 
                                                 
52 
[Reference] 
 
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SECTION 5 
DELEGATED ACTS 
Article 69 
Exercise of the delegation 
1. 
The power to adopt delegated acts is conferred on the Commission subject to the 
conditions laid down in this Article. 
2. 
The delegation of power referred to in Articles 23, 25, and 31 shall be conferred on the 
Commission for an indeterminate period of time from [date of expected adoption of the 
Regulation]. 
3. 
The delegation of power referred to in Articles 23, 25 and 31 may be revoked at any time 
by the European Parliament or by the Council. A decision of revocation shall put an end to 
the delegation of power specified in that decision. It shall take effect the day following that 
of its publication in the Official Journal of the European Union or at a later date specified 
therein. It shall not affect the validity of any delegated acts already in force. 
4. 
As soon as it adopts a delegated act, the Commission shall notify it simultaneously to the 
European Parliament and to the Council. 
5. 
A delegated act adopted pursuant to Articles 23, 25 and 31 shall enter into force only if no 
objection has been expressed by either the European Parliament or the Council within a 
period of three months of notification of that act to the European Parliament and the 
Council or if, before the expiry of that period, the European Parliament and the Council 
have both informed the Commission that they will not object. That period shall be 
extended by three months at the initiative of the European Parliament or of the Council. 
 
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Article 70 
Committee 
1. 
The Commission shall be assisted by the Digital Services Committee. That Committee 
shall be a Committee within the meaning of Regulation (EU) No 182/2011. 
2. 
Where reference is made to this Article, Article 4 of Regulation (EU) No 182/2011 shall 
apply. 
Chapter V 
Final provisions 
Article 71 
Deletion of certain provisions of Directive 2000/31/EC 
1. 
Articles 12 to 15 of Directive 2000/31/EC shall be deleted. 
2. 
References to Articles 12 to 15 of Directive 2000/31/EC shall be construed as references to 
Articles 3, 4, 5 and 7 of this Regulation, respectively. 
Article 72 
Amendments to Directive 2020/XX/EC on Representative Actions for the Protection of the 
Collective Interests of Consumers 
3. 
The following is added to Annex I: 
“(X) Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council on a Single Market for Digital 
Services (Digital Services Act) and amending Directive 2000/31/EC”. 
 
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Article 73 
Evaluation 
1. 
By five years after the entry into force of this Regulation at the latest, and every five years 
thereafter, the Commission shall evaluate this Regulation[, and in particular the scope of 
the obligations on small and micro enterprises,] and report to the European Parliament, 
the Council and the European Economic and Social Committee. On the basis of the 
findings, that report shall, where appropriate, be accompanied by a proposal for 
amendment of this Regulation. 
2. 
For the purpose of paragraph 1, Member States and the Board shall send information on 
the request of the Commission. 
3. 
In carrying out the evaluations referred to in paragraph 1, the Commission shall take into 
account the positions and findings of the European Parliament, the Council, and other 
relevant bodies or sources. 
4. 
By three years from the date of application of this Regulation at the latest, the 
Commission, after consulting the Board, shall carry out an assessment of the functioning of 
the Board and shall report it to the European Parliament, the Council and the European 
Economic and Social Committee, taking into account the first years of application of the 
Regulation. On the basis of the findings and taking into utmost account the opinion of the 
Board, that report shall, where appropriate, be accompanied by a proposal for amendment 
of this Regulation with regard to the structure of the Board. 
 
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Article 74 
Entry into force and application 
1. 
This Regulation shall enter into force on the twentieth day following that of its publication 
in the Official Journal of the European Union
2. 
It shall apply from [date - three twelve months after its entry into force]. 
This Regulation shall be binding in its entirety and directly applicable in all Member States. 
Done at Brussels, 
For the European Parliament 
For the Council 
The President 
The President 
 
 
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